Dynamics of Tunneling Systems in Metals
In recent years, it has been observed in a multitude of systems in physical and chemical sciences that quantum tunneling is strongly affected by dissipative influences of the environment. Dissipation was found to cause novel features such as dissipative phase transitions,1 exponential suppression2 and qualitative change of the temperature dependence3 of tunneling rates. Much of the theoretical efforts have been devoted to the phenomenon of macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) at T = 0,2 and at finite temperatures,3 and to macroscopic quantum coherence (MQC).4,5 The theoretical predictions for the temperature and damping dependence of MQT have been verified precisely, e.g., in experiments on the decay of the zero-voltage state of a Josephson junction.6
KeywordsMacroscopic Quantum Tunneling Coherent Tunneling Metallic Environment Functional Integral Method Functional Integral Approach
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