Second Messengers Mediating Gene Expression Essential to Neurite Formation Directed by Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factors

  • Douglas N. Ishii
  • Chiang Wang
  • Yi Li
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 293)


The nervous system confers an enormous survival advantage to higher animals by permitting behavioral adaptation to both external and internal environmental cues. Insulin and insulinlike growth factors (IGFs) are among regulatory signals implicated in the development of the neural circuitry (reviewed in Ishii et al., 1985; Recio-Pinto and Ishii, 1988a). Although the structure of the nervous system is profoundly complex, it is hoped that a reductionist approach, aimed at first understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating neurite (axon and dendrite) formation and extension, will eventually provide a foundation for understanding higher orders of organization. With this in mind, the present article contains discussion on our strategy and recent findings directed at elucidating the biochemical pathway through which insulin homologs and nerve growth factor (NGF) regulate the long term, stable extension of neurites.


PC12 Cell Nerve Growth Factor Neurite Outgrowth Human Neuroblastoma Cell Neurite Formation 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas N. Ishii
    • 1
  • Chiang Wang
    • 1
  • Yi Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Physiology and Biochemistry DepartmentsColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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