Second Messengers Mediating Gene Expression Essential to Neurite Formation Directed by Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factors
The nervous system confers an enormous survival advantage to higher animals by permitting behavioral adaptation to both external and internal environmental cues. Insulin and insulinlike growth factors (IGFs) are among regulatory signals implicated in the development of the neural circuitry (reviewed in Ishii et al., 1985; Recio-Pinto and Ishii, 1988a). Although the structure of the nervous system is profoundly complex, it is hoped that a reductionist approach, aimed at first understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating neurite (axon and dendrite) formation and extension, will eventually provide a foundation for understanding higher orders of organization. With this in mind, the present article contains discussion on our strategy and recent findings directed at elucidating the biochemical pathway through which insulin homologs and nerve growth factor (NGF) regulate the long term, stable extension of neurites.
KeywordsPC12 Cell Nerve Growth Factor Neurite Outgrowth Human Neuroblastoma Cell Neurite Formation
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