Excitations in Liquid 4He

  • Henry R. Clyde
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 257)


In this review we sketch the new understanding of collective and single particle excitations in liquid 4He revealed by recent neutron scattering and theoretical studies. The aim is to set the stage for the talks by Stirling, Griffin, Sokol, Svensson and Campbell. Recent experiments have focussed chiefly on the temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor, S(Q,w), and on scattering at high Q to explore Final State (FS) interactions and to determine the condensate fraction, n o(T). Measurements of the temperature dependence of S(Q,w) show that the low Q,phonon region and the higher Q, maxon and rotors regions are quite different. At low Q, S(Q,w) is concentrated in a single peak largely independent of T. At Q = 1.13 Å −1S(Q,w)has a sharp peak and a broad component at low T. The sharp peak disappears from S(Q,w) at T = T λ leaving only the broad component in the normal phase. An interpretation is sketched which suggests that the excitations are zero sound at low Q. At higher Q the zero sound mode broadens and the sharp peak in S(Q,w) is interpreted as a single particle excitation for Q ≥ 1.1Å −1. High Q data suggests n 0 = 10 ± 2% at T = 0K and that FS effects are small by Q ≈ 20Å −1.


Sound Mode Dynamic Structure Factor Condensate Fraction Broad Component Superfluid Phase 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry R. Clyde
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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