Structure and Function of HIV and SIV Nef Proteins

  • Lee Ratner
  • Thomas M. J. Niederman
  • Homer Lozeron
  • Martin Bryant
Part of the GWUMC Department of Biochemistry Annual Spring Symposia book series (GWUN)


Unlike many avian and murine retroviruses, human retroviruses and some simian retroviruses are characterized by the presence of genes in addition to those which encode virion structural proteins (gag and env) and enzymatic proteins (pol) (Fig. 1) (reviewed in Bryant & Ratner, 1990). These additional genetic determinants bear no strong resemblance to normal cellular sequences, and are thus, distinct from onc genes found in acute transforming viruses. Some of these genes are essential for virus replication, and have been termed “regulatory” genes. Examples of such regulatory genes are the tax and tat genes of HTLV-I/II and HIV/SIV families, respectively, which enhance viral transcription, and the rex and rev genes of HTLV-I/II and HIV/SIV families, respectively, which promote the transport of unspliced and single spliced viral mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Negative Regulatory Element Latent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Additional Genetic Determinant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee Ratner
    • 1
  • Thomas M. J. Niederman
    • 1
  • Homer Lozeron
    • 1
  • Martin Bryant
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Medicine & Molecular MicrobiologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

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