Advertisement

Altruism

Antidote to War and Human Antagonism
  • Samuel P. Oliner

Abstract

Few will dispute that war is the most persistent plague on humanity. Some say that with the exception of certain rodents no other vertebrate habitually destroys members of its own species. No other animal takes pleasure in exercising cruelty upon another of its own kind (Storr, 1968). Why are war and human antagonism so prevalent? There have been numerous attempts to explain human aggression over the past several hundred years, so many in fact that it is impossible to even summarize them. We shall instead outline a few major causes of war and human antagonism. In this chapter, besides sketching the causes of war and violence, we shall devote the major section to the attainment of human consensus and antidotes to war, stressing the role of global education, global government, moral courage, and altruism in achieving peace. Special attention will be given to altruistic behavior during the Nazi occupation of Europe, which is based on our recent research of rescuers of Jews.

Keywords

Social Responsibility World Order Liberal Perspective Moral Courage Peaceful World 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

References

  1. Allen, J. (1971). In W. B. Franklin & W. R. Webb, (Eds.), As a man thinketh: James Allen’s greatest inspirational essays. Kansas City: Hallmark Crown Editions.Google Scholar
  2. Altmeyer, B. (1988). Enemies of freedom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  3. Ardrey, R. (1966). The Territorial imperative. New York: Atheneum.Google Scholar
  4. Bok, Sissela. (1989). A strategy for peace. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  5. Bord, R. J., & Faulkner, J. E. (1983). The Catholic charismatics. University Park & London: Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  6. Boulding, K. E. (1959). National images and international systems. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 3, 120–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bulletin of Peace Proposals. (1989). 20(3).Google Scholar
  8. Burke, E. (1961). Reflections on the revolution in France. [Bound with Thomas Paine,The rights of man.] New York Dolphin Books.Google Scholar
  9. Burckhardt, J. (1943). Force and freedom: Reflections on history. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  10. Cantril, H. (Ed.) (1950). Tensions that cause war. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  11. Clausewitz, C. von. (1968). Clausewitz on war. Anatol Rapoport (Ed.). Baltimore: Pengu in Books.Google Scholar
  12. Davies, J. C. (1962). Toward a theory of revolution. American Sociological Review. February 27, pp. 5–19.Google Scholar
  13. Durkheim, E. (1961). Moral education. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  14. Ferencz, B. B., & Keyes, K, Jr. (1988) Planethood. Coos Bay, Vision Books.Google Scholar
  15. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  16. Freud, S. (1968). Why war? In L. Bramson & G. W. Goethals (Eds.), Freud, S (pp. 71–80 ). New York Basic Books.Google Scholar
  17. Fromm, E. (1965). Escape from freedom. New York: Avon Books.Google Scholar
  18. Harman, W. W. (1988). The quest for security viewed as a whole-system problem. R. Thakurd (Ed.), International Conflict Resolution (pp. 261–280 ). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hobbes, T. (1909). Leviathan. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  20. Ikeda, D. (1989). Toward a new globalism. Bulletin of Peace Proposals, 20, 229–237.Google Scholar
  21. International Journal on World Peace. (1988). 5(4).Google Scholar
  22. Janis, I. L. (1972). Victims of groupthink. Boston: Houghl in Mifflin.Google Scholar
  23. Journal of Peace Research. (1989). 26(1).Google Scholar
  24. King, W. (1989). Carter redux. New York Times Magazine, December 10, p. 38.Google Scholar
  25. Lieberman, K. (1986). The Tibetan cultural praxis: Bodhicitta thought training. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 13 (1,2), p 113–126.Google Scholar
  26. Lorenz, K. (1966). On aggression. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  27. May, R. (1975). The courage to create. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  28. Mazrui, A. A. (1975). World culture and the search for human consensus. In Saul H. Mendlovitz (Ed.), On the Creation of a Just World Order: Preferred Worlds for the 1990’s (pp. 1–37 ). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  29. Mische, G., & Mische, P. (1977). Toward a human world order. New York Paulist Press.Google Scholar
  30. Moltke, H. von. (1979). In K. L. Nelson & S. C. Olin, Jr. (Eds.), Why War?: Ideology, theory and history. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. Mussen, P., & Eisenberg-Berg, N. (1977). Roots of caring, sharing and helping: The development of prosocial behavior in children. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  32. Nelson, K. L., & Olin, S. C., Jr. (1979). Why war? Ideology, theory and history. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  33. Oliner, S. P., & Oliner, P. (1988). The altruistic personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi Europe. New York Free Press.Google Scholar
  34. Plato. (1961). The symposium. In E. Hamilton and H. Cairns (Eds.), The collected dialogues of Plato (pp. 526–574 ). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Reardon, B. (1988). Educating for global responsibility: Teacher designed curricular for peace education, K-12. New York: Teacher’s College Press.Google Scholar
  36. Roosevelt, T. (1926). Works, vol. 18, pp. 66–67. New York: Charles Scribner s Sons.Google Scholar
  37. Sakamoto, Y. (1975). Toward global identity. In S. H. Mendlovitz (Ed.), On the Creation of a just world order: Preferred Worlds for the 1990’s (pp. 187–210 ). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  38. Staub, E. (1989). The roots of evil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Storr, A. (1968). Human aggression. New York: Atheneum.Google Scholar
  40. Tocqueville, A. de. (1945). Democracy in America; 2 volumes. New York Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  41. Weizsacker, C. F. von. (1988). Justice, peace and the preservation of nature. In R. Thakur (Ed)., International Conflict Resolution (pp. 231–260 ). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  42. White, R. K (1984). Fearful warriors, a psychological profile of U.S.-Soviet relations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  43. Wright, Q. (1943). A study of war. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  44. Wright, Q. (1980). The nature of conflict. In R. A. Falk & S. S. Kim (Eds.), The War System: An Interdisciplinary Approach, pp.. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar

Additional Readings

  1. Barnet, R. J. (1990). Reflections (after the cold war). The New Yorker, January 1, pp. 65–76.Google Scholar
  2. Becker, E. (1975). Escape from evil. New York Free Press.Google Scholar
  3. Becker, E. (1986). When the war was over: The voices of Cambodia’s revolution and its people. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  4. Blainey, G. (1973). The causes of war. New York Free Press.Google Scholar
  5. Boulding, K E. (1956). The image. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  6. Boulding, K E. (1963). The economic implications of warlessness. In A. Larson (Ed.), A Warless World (pp. 59–74). New York McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  7. Boulding, K. E. (1980). National images and international systems. In R. A. Falk & S. S. Kim (Eds.), The War System: An Interdisciplinary Approach (pp. 536–550 ). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, D. T. (1965). Ethnocentric and other altruistic motives. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 283–311 ). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  9. Charily, I. W. (1982). Genocide: The human cancer. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  10. Corson, W. H., (Ed.) (1989). Citizen’s guide to sustainable development. Washington, DC: Global Tomorrow Coalition.Google Scholar
  11. Deutsch, M. (1973). The resolution of conflict: Constructive and destructive processes. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Eisler, R. (1987). The chalice and the blade. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  13. Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York Norton.Google Scholar
  14. Erikson, E. H. (1969). Gandhi’s truth. New York Norton.Google Scholar
  15. Eron, L. D. (1982). Parent-child interaction, television violence, and aggression of children. American Psychologist, 37, 197–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feller, G., Schwenninger, S. R., & Singerman, D. (Eds.) (1980). Peace and World Order Studies. Transnational Academic Program. New York Institute for World Order.Google Scholar
  17. Fried, M. (1968). In M. Harris & R. Murphy (Eds.), War: The anthropology of armed conflict and aggression. Garden City, NY: The Natural History Press.Google Scholar
  18. Freud, S. (1953–1974). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud,(vols. 14 and 22). London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  19. Fromm, E. (1973). The anatomy of human destructiveness. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Gallup poll. (1990).Google Scholar
  20. Gewirtz, J. L., & Kurtines, W. M. (Eds.) (1984?). Morality, moral behavior and moral development. New York: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  21. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gorbachev, M. (1987). Perestroika: New thinking for our country and the world. New York Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  23. Groeber, J., & Hinde, R. A. (1989). Aggression and war: Their biological and social bases. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gurr, T. (1970). Why men rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gurr, T. (1980). Psychological factors in civil violence. In R. A. Falk & S. S. Kim (Eds.), The war system: An interdisciplinary approach, pp.. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hanh, T. N. (1976). The miracle of mindfulness: A manual on meditation. M. Warren ( Trans.) Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hey, R. P. (1988). How the faces of voluntarism are changing in America. The Christian Science Monitor, December 5, p. 17.Google Scholar
  28. Hobbes, T. (1909). Leviathan. Oxford. Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  29. Hollins, H. B., Powers, A. L., & Sommer, M. (1989). The Conquest of War. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  30. Kriesberg, L. (1982). Social conflicts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Latane, B., & Darley, J. (1970). The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn’t he help? New York Appleton-Crofts.Google Scholar
  32. Link, A. S. (1954). Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910–1917. New York Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  33. Mazrui, A. A. (1988). The moral paradigms of the superpowers: A Third World perspective. In R. Thakur (Ed.), International Conflict Resolution (pp. 197–210 ). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  34. Melko, M. (1969). 52 peaceful societies. Oakville, Ontario: Canadian Peace Research Institute Press. Mendlovitz, S. H. (1975). On the creation of a just world order. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  35. Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: an experimental view. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  36. Niebuhr, R. (1960). Moral man and immoral society: A study in ethics and politics. New York Charles Scribner s Sons.Google Scholar
  37. Niffenegger, S. (1989). Why we all love to hate. Newsweek, August 28, pp. 62–64.Google Scholar
  38. Pilgrim, P. (1983). Peace Pilgrim: Her life and work in her own words. Santa Fe: Ocean Tree Books.Google Scholar
  39. Schell, J. (1982). The fate of the earth. New York Knopf.Google Scholar
  40. Sharp, G. (1970). Exploring nonviolent alternatives. Boston: Porter Sargent Publisher.Google Scholar
  41. Silverstein, B., & Holt, R. R. (1989). Research on enemy images: Present status and future prospects. Journal on Social Issues, 45 (2), 159–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Staub, E. (1988). The evolution of caring and nonaggressive persons and societies. Journal of Social Issues, 44 (2), 81–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stoessinger, J. G. (1982). Why nations go to war. New York St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  44. Toth, K (1988). Role of the church in conflict resolution. In R. Thakur (Ed.), International Conflict Resolution (pp. 211–222 ). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  45. Wasserstrom, R. A. (1970). War and morality. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Wiesel, E. (1989). Are we afraid of peace? Parade Magazine, March 19, pp. 12.Google Scholar
  46. Wilson, E. O. (1975). Sociobiology, the new synthesis. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University.Google Scholar
  47. Williams, J. G. (1986). The sermon on the mount as a Christian basis of altruism. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 13 (1,2), 89–112.Google Scholar
  48. Wolman, N. (Ed.) (1985). Working for peace. San Luis Obispo: Impact Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel P. Oliner
    • 1
  1. 1.Altruistic Personality and Prosocial Behavior InstituteHumboldt State UniversityArcataUSA

Personalised recommendations