Skip to main content

Epidemiologic Aspects of the Relationship Between Temperature and Male Reproduction

  • Chapter

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB,volume 286)


The present knowledge about the relationship between temperature and male reproductive functions comes mainly from animal studies, from in vitro experiments and from clinical observations. In animals such as the rat, rabbit, dog, sheep, ram and bull, procedures such as experimental cryptorchidism, scrotal insulation, acute febrile illness, increased ambient temperature and experimental varicocele all alter the spermatogenic functions and inhibit spermatogenesis1.


These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD   39.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD   54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Learn about institutional subscriptions


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Kandeel, R. and Swerdloff, R.S. 1988. Role of temperature in regulation of spermatogenesis and the use of heating as a method for contraception.Fertil. Steril., 49: 1.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Nakamura, N. et al. 1989. Impaired DNA synthesis by early pubertal cryptorchid testis in vitro.Arch. Androl., 22: 137.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. WHO: Investigation of the infertile couple.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Laven, J.S.E., Haverkorn, M.J. and Bots, R. 1988. Influence of occupation and living habits on semen quality in men (scrotal insulation and semen quality).Europ. J. Obstet. Gvnecol. Reprod. Biol., 29: 137–141.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Zorgniotti, A.W. and MacLeod, J. 1973. Studies in temperature, human quality and varicocele.Fertil. Steril., 24: 854.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. MacLeod, J. and Hotchkiss, R.S. 1941. The effect of hyperpyrexia upon spermatozoa counts in men.Endokrinologie. 28: 780.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Robinson, D., Rock, J. and Menkin, M.E. 1968. Control of human spermatogenesis by induced changes of intrascrotal temperature.Jama. 204: 290.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Procope, B.J. 1965. Effect of repeated increase of body temperature on human sperm cells.Int. J. Fertil., 10: 333.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Spira, A. 1984. Seasonal variations of sperm characteristics.Arch. Androl., 12: 23.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Rock, J. and Robinson, D. 1967. Effect of induced intrascrotal hypothermia on testicular function in man.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 29: 217.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Mieusset, R., Bujan, L. and Mansat, A. 1987. Hyperthermia and human spermatogenesis: enhancement of the inhibitory effect obtained by “artificial cryptorchidism”.Int. J. Androl., 10: 57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Tokuyama, I. 1963. Quoted by Lebion, C.P., Steinberger, E. and RoosenRunge, E.C. in: Spermatogenesis: Mechanisms concerned with conception. Edited by C.G. Hartman, Oxford, Pergamon, p. 1.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 1991 Plenum Press, New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Spira, A. (1991). Epidemiologic Aspects of the Relationship Between Temperature and Male Reproduction. In: Zorgniotti, A.W. (eds) Temperature and Environmental Effects on the Testis. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 286. Springer, Boston, MA.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4684-5915-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4684-5913-5

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

Publish with us

Policies and ethics