Laser Atmospheric Wind Velocity Measurements
The value and use of wind field measurements in environmental and Earth system science is discussed as an introduction. A brief overview or remote sensing techniques which can be used for wind field measurements is then included to provide a context for evaluating the particular characteristics of Doppler lidar which enhance wind measurement capability. These techniques include cloud-track winds measurements, aerosol or water vapor pattern correlation techniques, various limb sounders, and Doppler radar. Principles of Doppler lidar are then introduced, along with a discussion of the means of providing a backscatter signal which can be used to detect wind velocity. The discussion of Doppler lidar principles and techniques distinguishes coherent and incoherent (direct detection) lidar. For each of these two classes of Doppler lidar, SNR expressions are developed, and the rationale behind choice of wavelengths and laser technology is discussed. Examples of Doppler lidar use in field measurements are cited, and several design considerations for future use of this technique to measure global wind fields are presented.
KeywordsCoherence Time Doppler Radar Backscatter Signal Lidar System Doppler Lidar
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