Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Environmental Monitoring

  • S. Svanberg
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (EMISS, volume 54)


Fluorescence spectroscopy has long been used for analytical and diagnostic purposes1–4.Using UV laser sources, the techniques of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) have become particularly powerful. The LIF process in large molecules, such as biological ones, is schematically illustrated in Figure 1 (Ref. 5). The ground as well as the excited electronic levels are broadened by vibrational motion and interactions with surrounding molecules. Thus, absorption occurs in a broad band allowing a fixed-frequency UV laser, such as a nitrogen laser (λ=337 nm), an excimer laser (XeCl, λ=308 nm; XeF, λ=351 nm) or a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser (λ= 355 nm) to be used for the excitation. A radiationless relaxation to the bottom of the excited band then occurs on a pico-second time scale. The molecules remain here for a typical lifetime of few nanoseconds. Fluorescent light is released in a red-shifted broad band, which is frequently rather structureless. Internal conversion and transfer of energy to surrounding molecules are strongly competing radiationless processes.


Phaeodactylum Tricornutum Radiationless Process Radiationless Relaxation Construction Consideration Nitrogen Laser Excitation 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Svanberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsLund Institute of TechnologyLundSweden

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