Alphaviruses, Flaviviruses, and Bunyaviruses

  • Diane E. Griffin
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)


The alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and bunyaviruses constitute three different families of enveloped RNA viruses that share the ability to be transmitted by insect vectors. They can be classified into a broader category of arthropod-borne viruses or arboviruses, which are able to replicate in both their vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Some members of each of these families can also cause central nervous system (CNS) infection. Infection is usually initiated by subcutaneous or intravenous inoculation of virus into vertebrates by injection of infected saliva from the insect vector. For maintenance of infection in nature the vertebrate host must develop a viremia of sufficient magnitude to infect the insect vector during a blood meal. Because of a low-level viremia man is often a dead-end host, infected only when vector populations are high, and unimportant to maintenance of virus in nature.


West Nile Virus Japanese Encephalitis Semliki Forest Virus Japanese Encephalitis Virus Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Johnson, R. T., 1989, Arboviral encephalitis, in: Tropical and Geographical Medicine ( K. S. Warren and A. A. E. Mahmoud, ed.), McGraw—Hill, New York, pp. 691–700.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tesh, R. B., 1982, Arthritides caused by mosquito-borne viruses, Annu. Rev. Med. 33: 31–40.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Griffin, D. E., 1986, Alphavirus pathogenesis and immunity, in: The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae ( S. Schlesinger and M. J. Schlesinger, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 209–249.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kielian, M., and Helenius, A., 1986, Entry of alphaviruses, in: The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae ( S. Schlesinger and M. J. Schlesinger, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 91–119.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harrison, S. C., 1986, Alphavirus structure, in: The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae ( S. Schlesinger and M. J. Schlesinger, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 21–34.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Strauss, E. G., and Strauss, J. H., 1986, Structure and replication of the alphavirus genome, in: The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae ( S. Schlesinger and M. J. Schlesinger, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 35–90.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brown, D. T., and Condreay, L. D., 1986, Replication of alphaviruses in mosquito cells, in: The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae ( S. Schlesinger and M. J. Schlesinger, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 171–207.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shope, R. E., 1985, Alphaviruses, in: Virology ( B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, R. M. Chanock, J. L. Melnick, B. Roizman, and R. E. Shope, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 931–953.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Russell, P. K., 1985, Alphavirus (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan equine encephalitis), in: Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 2nd ed. (G. L. Mandell, R. G. Douglas, Jr., and J. E. Bennett, eds.), John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 917–920.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hayes, R. 0., 1961, Host preferences of Culiseta melanura and allied mosquitoes, Mosquito News 21: 179–187.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ehrenkranz N. J., and Ventura, A. K., 1974, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in man, Annu. Rev. Med. 25: 9–14.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grayson, M. A., and Galindo, P., 1968, Epidemiologic studies of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in Almirante, Panama, Am. J Epidemiol. 88: 80–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sudia, W. D., Newhouse, V. E, and Henderson, B. E., 1971, Experimental infection of horses with three strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. II. Experimental vector studies, Am. J. Epidemiol. 93: 206–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Monath, T. P., Calisher, C. H., Davis, M., Bowen, G. S., and White, J., 1974, Experimental studies of rhesus monkeys infected with epizootic and enzootic subtypes of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, J. Infect. Dis. 129: 194–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sudia, W. D., and Newhouse, V. F., 1975, Epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in North America: A summary of virus—vector—host relationships, Am. J. Epidemiol. 101: 1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goldfield, M., Welsh, J. N., and Taylor, B. E, 1968, The 1959 outbreak of Eastern encephalitis in New Jersey. 5. The inapparent infection: Disease ratio, Am. J. Epidemiol. 87: 32–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Farber, S., Hill, A., Connerly, M. L., and Dingle, J. H., 1940, Encephalitis in infants and children caused by the virus of the Eastern variety of equine encephalitis, J.A.M.A. 114: 1725–1731.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kokernot, R. H., Shinefield, H. R., and Longshore, W. A., 1953, The 1952 outbreak of encephalitis in California, Calif. Med. 79: 73–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Centers for Disease Control, 1988, Arboviral infections of the central nervous system—United States, 1987, Morbid. Mortal Weekly Rep. 37: 506–515.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shinefield, M. R., and Townsend, T. E., 1953, Transplacental transmission of western equine encephalitis, J. Pediatr. 43: 21–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lennette, E. H., and Koprowski, H., 1943, Human infection with Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus: A report on eight cases of infection acquired in the laboratory, J.A.M.A. 1231: 1088–1095.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wenger, E, 1977, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Teratology 16: 359–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    London, W. T., Levitt, N. H., Kent, S. G., Wong, V. G., and Sever, J. L., 1977, Congenital cerebral and ocular malformations induced in rhesus monkeys by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Teratology 16: 285–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Leon, C. A., Jaramillo, R., Martinez, S., Fernandez, E, Tellez, H., Lasso, B., and de Guzman, R., 1975, Sequelae of Venezuelan equine encephalitis in humans: A four year follow-up, Int. j Epidemiol. 4: 131–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Danes, L., Kufner, J., Hruskova, J., and Rychterova, V., 1973, The role of the olfactory route of infection of the respiratory tract with Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus in normal and operated Macaca rhesus monkeys. I. Results of virological examination, Acta Virol. 17: 50–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu, C., Voth, D. W, Rodina, P., Shauf, L. R., and Gonzalez, G., 1970, A comparative study of the pathogenesis of Western equine and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral infections in mice by intracerebral and subcutaneous inoculations, J. Infect. Dis. 122: 53–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jackson, A. C., Moench, T. R., and Griffin, D. E., 1987, The pathogenesis of spinal cord involvement in the encephalomyelitis of mice caused by neuroadapted Sindbis virus infection, Lab. Invest. 56: 418–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Noran, H. H., and Baker, A. B., 1945, Western equine encephalitis: The pathogenesis of the pathological lesions, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 4: 269–276.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Johnson, K. M., Shelokov, A., Peralta, P. H., Dammin, G. J., and Young, N. A., 1968, Recovery of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus in Panama, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 17: 432–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Moench, T. R., and Griffin, D. E., 1984, Immunocytochemical identification and quantitation of mononuclear cells in cerebrospinal fluid, meninges, and brain during acute viral meningoencephalitis, J. Exp. Med. 159: 77–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Griffin, D. E., and Hess, J. L., 1986, Cells with natural killer activity in the cerebrospinal fluid of normal mice and athymic nude mice with acute Sindbis virus encephalitis, J. Immunol. 136: 1841–1845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Suckling, A. J., Pathak, S., Jagelman, S., and Webb, H. E., 1978, Virus-associated demyelination: A model using avirulent Semliki Forest virus infection of mice, J. Neurol. Sci. 39: 147–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kennedy, A. C., Fleming, J., and Solomon, L., 1980, Chikungunya viral arthropathy: A clinical description, J Rheumatol. 7: 231–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rosen, L., Gubler, D. J., and Bennett, P. H., 1981, Epidemic polyarthritis (Ross River) virus infection in the Cook Islands, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 30: 1294–1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aaskov, J. G., Mataika, J. U., Lawrence, G. W, Rabukawaga, V., Tucker, M. M., Miles, J. A. R., and Dalglish, D. A.,1981, An epidemic of Ross River virus infection in Fiji, 1979, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 30: 1053–1059.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Espmark, A., and Niklasson, B., 1984, Ockelbo disease in Sweden: Epidemiological, clinical, and virological data from the 1982 outbreak, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 33: 1203–1211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rice, C. M., Strauss, E. G., and Struass, J. H., 1986, Structure of the flavivirus genome, in: The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae ( S. Schlesinger and M. J. Schlesinger, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 279–326.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brinton, M. A., 1986, Replication of flaviviruses, in: The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae ( S. Schlesinger and M. J. Schlesinger, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 327–374.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Peiris, J. S. M., and Porterfield, J. S., 1979, Antibody-mediated enhancement of flavivirus replication in macrophage-like cell lines, Nature 282: 509–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Halstead, S. B., Porterfield, J. S., and O’Rourke, E. J., 1980, Enhancement of dengue infection in monocytes by flavivirus antisera, Am. j Trop. Med. Hyg. 29: 638–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Monath, T. P., 1986, Pathobiology of the flaviviruses, in: The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae ( S. Schlesinger and M. J. Schlesinger, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 375–440.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Monath, T. P., 1985, Flaviviruses, in: Virology ( B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, R. M. Chanock, J. L. Melnick, B. Roizman, and R. E. Shope, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 955–1004.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Scherer, W. E, and Buescher, E. L., 1959, Ecologic studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Japan I—IX, Am. j Trop. Med. Hyg. 8: 644–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Leake, C. J., and Johnson, R. T., 1987, The pathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis virus in Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 81: 681–685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Umenai, T, Krzysko, R., Bektimirov, T. A., and Assaad, E. A., 1985, Japanese encephalitis: Current worldwide status, Bull. WHO 63: 625–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kokernot, R. H., Hayes, J., Will, R. L., Tempelis, C. H., Chan, D. H. M., and Radivojivic, B., 1969, Arbovirus studies in the Ohio—Mississippi basin, 1964–1967. II. St. Louis encephalitis virus, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 18: 750–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bailey, C. L., Eldridge, B. E, Hayes, D. E., Watts, D. M., Tammariello, R. E, and Dalrymple, J. M., 1978, Isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus from overwintering Culex pipiens mosquitoes, Science 199: 1346–1349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Monath, T. P., and Tsai, T. E, 1987, St. Louis encephalitis: Lessons from the last decade, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 37 (Suppl.): 40S - 59S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Huang, C. H., 1982, Studies of Japanese encephalitis in China, Adv. Virus Res. 27: 71–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Monath, T. P., Cropp, C. B., Bowen, G. S., Kemp, G. E., Mitchell, C. J., and Gardner, J. J., 1980, Variation in virulence for mice and rhesus monkeys among St. Louis encephalitis virus strains of different origin, Am. J Trop. Med. Hyg. 29: 948–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sabin, A. B., 1947, Epidemic encephalitis in military personnel, /A.M.A. 133: 281–293.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dickerson, R. B., Newton, J. R., and Hasen, J. E., 1952, Diagnosis anciimmediate prognosis of Japanese B encephalitis, Am. J. Med. 12: 277–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Southern, P. M., Smith, J. W, Luby, J. P., Barnett, J. A., and Sanford, J. P., 1969, Clinical and laboratory features of epidemic St. Louis encephalitis, Ann. Intern. Med. 71: 681–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    White, M. G., Carter, N. W, Rector, E. C., and Seldin, D. W, 1969, Pathophysiology of epidemic St. Louis encephalitis. I. Inappropriate secretion of antidurietic hormone, Ann. Intern. Med. 71: 691–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tsai, T E, Canfield, M. A., Reed, C. M., Flahnery, V. L., Sullivan, K. H., Reeve, G. R., Bailey, R. E., and Poland, J. D., 1988, Epidemiological aspects of a St. Louis encephalitis outbreak in Harris County, Texas, 1986, J. Infect. Dis. 157: 351–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Smorodintsev, A. A., 1958, Tick-borne spring—summer encephalitis, Prog. Med. Virol. 1: 210–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    GraItenkov, N. I., 1964, Tick-borne encephalitis in the USSR, Bull. WHO 30: 187–196.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Blalkovit, D., 1967, The public health importance of tick-borne encephalitis in Europe, Bull. WHO 36: 5–13.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cruse, R. P., Rothner, A. D., Erenberg, G., and Calisher, C. H., 1979, Central European tick borne encephalitis: An Ohio case with a history of foreign travel, Am. J. Dis. Child. 133: 1070–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Johnson, R. T., Burke, D. S., Elwell, M., Leake, C. J., Nisalak, A., Hoke, C. H., and Lorsmrudee, W, 1985, Japanese encephalitis: Immunocytochemical studies of viral antigen and inflammatory cells in fatal cases, Ann. Neurol. 18: 567–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Albrecht, P., 1968, Pathogenesis of neurotropic arbovirus infections, Cur. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 43: 44–91.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Monath, T. P., Cropp, C. P., and Harrison, A. K., 1983, Mode of entry of a neurotropic arbovirus into the central nervous system. Reinvestigation of an old controversy, Lab. Invest. 48: 399–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jervis, G. A., and Higgins, G. H., 1953, Russian spring-summer encephalitis (Clinico-pathologic report of a case in the human), J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 12: 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Weiner, L. P., Cole, G. A., and Nathanson, N., 1970, Experimental encephalitis following peripheral inoculation of West Nile virus in mice of different ages, J. Hyg. 68: 435–446.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chaturvedi, U. C., Mathur, A., Tandon, P., Natu, S. M., Rajvanshi, S., and Tandon, H. O., 1979, Variable effect on peripheral blood leukocytes during JE virus infection of man, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38: 492–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    D’ Souza, M. B., Nagarkatli, P. S., and Rao, K. M., 1979, Subpopulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in human encephalitis caused by group B arboviruses (Dengue, West Nile and Japanese B encephalitis), J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. 23: 59–66.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Johnson, R. T., Intralawan, P., and Puapanwatton, S., 1986, Japanese encephalitis: Identification of inflammatory cells in cerebrospinal fluid, Ann. Neurol. 20: 691–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Reyes, M. G., Gardner, J. J., Poland, J. D., and Monath, T. P., 1981, St. Louis encephalitis: Quantitative histologic and immunofluorescent studies, Arch. Neurol. 38: 329–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rosemberg, S., 1980, Neuropathology of S. Paulo south coast epidemic encephalitis (Rocio flavivirus), J. Neurol. Sci. 45: 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ishii, T., Matsushita, M., and Hamada, S., 1977, Characteristic residual neuropathological features of Japanese B encephalitis, Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 38: 282–286.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mazlo, M., and Szanto, J., 1978, Morphological demonstration of the virus of tick borne encephalitis in the human brain, Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 43: 251–253.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kornyey, S., 1978, Contribution to the histology of tick-borne encephalitis, Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 43: 179–183.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Burke, D. S., Nisalak, A., and Ussery, M. A., 1982, Antibody capture immunoassay detection of Japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M and G antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid, J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 1034–1042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Burke, D. S., Nisalak, A., Ussery, M. A., Laorakpongse, T., and Clantavibul, S., 1985, Kinetics of IgM and IgG antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid, J. Infect. Dis. 151: 1093–1099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Burke, D. S., Losomrudee, W, Leake, C. J., Hoke, C. H., Nisalak, A., Chongswasdi, V., and Laorakpongse, T., 1985, Fatal outcome in Japanese encephalitis, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 34: 1203–1210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Granstrom, M., Grandien, M., and Saikku, P., 1978, Early diagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) by demonstration of specific IgM antibodies, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 10: 97–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hofmann, H., Frisch-Niggemeyer, W, and Heinz, E, 1979, Rapid diagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, j Gen. Virol. 42: 505–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Monath, T. P., Nystrom, R. R., Bailey, R. E., Calisher, C. H., and Muth, D. J., 1984, Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 784–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Edelman, R., Schneider, R. J., Vejjajiva, A., Pornpibal, R., and Voodhikul, R, 1976, Persistence of virus-specific IgM and clinical recovery after Japanese encephalitis, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 25: 733–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ilienko, V. I., Komandenko, N. I. Platonov, V. G., Prozorova, I. N., and Panov, A. G., 1974, Pathogenetic study on chronic forms of tick-borne encephalitis, Acta Virol. 18: 341–346.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Pogodina, V. V., Frolova, M. P., Malenko, G. V., Fokina, G. I., Levnia, L. S., Mamonenko, L. L., Koreshkova, G. V., and Ralf, N. M., 1981, Persistence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in monkeys. I. Features of experimental infection, Acta Virol. 25: 337–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pogodina, V. V., Levina, L. S., Fokina, G. I., Koreshkova, G. V., Malenko, G. V., Bochkova, N. G., and Pzhakhova, O. E., 1981, Persistence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in monkeys. III. Phenotypes of the persisting virus, Acta Virol. 25: 352–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Asher, D. M., 1980, Chronic encephalitis, in: Search for the Cause of Diseases of the Central Nervous System ( A. Boese, ed.), Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp. 272–279.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Asher, D. M., 1971, Focal neurological disease with chronic encephalitis in children and an experimental primate model, in: Proceedings 13th International Congress of Pediatrics, III, Volume 2, Verlag der Wiener Medizinischen Akademie, Vienna, pp. 379–384.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hoke, C. H., Nisalak, A., Sangawhipa, N., Jatanasen, S., Laorakopongse, T., Innis, B. L., Kolchasenee, S. O., Gingrich, J. B., Latendresso, J., Fukai, K., and Burke, D. S., 1988, Protection against Japanese encephalitis by inactivated vaccines, N. Engl. j Med. 319: 608–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kung, C., Hofmann, H., Heinz, E. X., and Dippe, H., 1980, Efficacy of vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), Wein. Klin. Wochschr. 92: 809.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Glukhov, B. N., Jerusalimsky, A. P., Canter, V. M., and Salganik, R. I., 1976 Ribonuclease treatment of tick-borne encephalitis, Arch. Neurol. 33: 598–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Huggins, J. W, 1990, RNA viruses causing hemorrhagic encephalitic and febrile disease, in: Antiviral Agents and Viral Diseases of Man, 3rd ed. ( G. Galasso, R. J. Whitley, and T. C. Merigan, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 691–726.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Shope, R. E., 1985, Bunyaviruses, in: Virology ( B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, R. M. Chanock, J. L. Melnick, B. Roizman, and R. E. Shope, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 1055–1082.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Beaty, B. J., Sundin, D. R., Chandler, L. J., and Bishop, D. H. L., 1985, Evolution of bunyaviruses by genome reassortment in dually infected mosquitoes (Aedes triseriatus), Science 230: 548–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Beaty, B. J., Holterman, M., Tabachnick, W, Shope, R. E, Rozhon, E. J., and Bishop, D. H. L., 1981, Molecular basis of bunyavirus transmission by mosquitoes: Role of the middle-sized RNA segment, Science 211: 1433–1435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sundin, D. R., Beaty, B. J., Nathanson, N., and Gonzalez-Scarano, E, 1987, A G1 glycoprotein epitope of LaCrosse virus: A determinant of infection of Aedes triseriatus, Science 235: 591–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Johnson, K. P., Lepow, M. L., and Johnson, R. T., 1968, California encephalitis. I. Clinical and epidemiological studies, Neurology 18: 250–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Parkin, W. E., Hammon, W. McD., and Sather, G. E., 1972, Review of current epidemiological literature on viruses of the California arbovirus group, Am. j Trop. Med. Hyg. 21: 964–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Balfour, H. H., Jr., Edelman, C. K., Cook, E. E., Barton, W. I., Buzicky, A. W, Siem, R. A., and Bauer, H., 1975, Isolates of California encephalitis (LaCrosse) virus from field-collected eggs and larvae of Aedes triseriatus: Identification of the overwintering site of California encephalitis, J. Infect. Dis. 131: 712–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Thompson, W. H., and Beaty, B. J., 1979, Venereal transmission of LaCrosse virus from male to female Aedes triseriatus, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 27: 187–196.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Centers for Disease Control, 1987, Update: Aedes albopictus infestation—United States, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 36: 769–773.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Centers for Disease Control, 1987, Arboviral infections of the central nervous system—United States, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 36: 450–455.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Grimstead, P. R., 1983, Mosquitoes and the incidence of encephalitis, Adv. Virus. Res. 28: 157–233.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Centers for Disease Control, 1988, LaCrosse encephalitis in West Virginia, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 37: 79–82.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jamnback, T. L., Beaty, B. J., Hildreth, S. W, and Brown, K. L., 1982, Capture immunoglobulin M system for rapid diagnosis of LaCrosse (California encephalitis) virus infecdons, J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 577–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Johnson, K. P., and Johnson, R. T., 1968, California encephalitis. II. Studies of experimental infection in the mouse, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 27: 390–400.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Janssen, R. S., Nathanson, N., Endres, M. J., and Gonzalez-Scarano, E, 1986, Virulence of LaCrosse virus is under polygenic control, J. Virol. 59: 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Jortner, B. S., Shope, R. E., and Manuelidis, E. E., 1971, Neuropathologic and virus assay studies of experimental California virus encephalitis in mouse, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 30: 91–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diane E. Griffin
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Medicine and NeurologyThe Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations