Alphaviruses, Flaviviruses, and Bunyaviruses

  • Diane E. Griffin
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)


The alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and bunyaviruses constitute three different families of enveloped RNA viruses that share the ability to be transmitted by insect vectors. They can be classified into a broader category of arthropod-borne viruses or arboviruses, which are able to replicate in both their vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Some members of each of these families can also cause central nervous system (CNS) infection. Infection is usually initiated by subcutaneous or intravenous inoculation of virus into vertebrates by injection of infected saliva from the insect vector. For maintenance of infection in nature the vertebrate host must develop a viremia of sufficient magnitude to infect the insect vector during a blood meal. Because of a low-level viremia man is often a dead-end host, infected only when vector populations are high, and unimportant to maintenance of virus in nature.


West Nile Virus Japanese Encephalitis Semliki Forest Virus Japanese Encephalitis Virus Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus 


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© Plenum Press, New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diane E. Griffin
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Medicine and NeurologyThe Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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