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Neurological Aspects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

  • Howard E. Gendelman
  • Seymour Gendelman
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)

Abstract

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiologic agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS),1–3 belongs to a taxonomic group of nononcogenic retroviruses termed lentivirinae that share biological, biochemical, and molecular features for viral persistence.4–11 The hallmark of HIV infection is a relentless and profound immunosuppression mediated by a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes.12–15 However, the virus-infected macrophage is also intimately involved in HIV pathogenesis. Primary HIV-induced disease revolves around a near-exclusive replication of virus in multinucleated and mono-nucleated macrophages typified by central nervous system (CNS) infection.16-24 Brain macrophages are likely infected soon after viral exposure22–25 and contribute to CNS-related neuronal injury through the secretion of neurotoxins (of viral or cellular origin) and/or by coexistent opportunistic infections. Indeed, the highest levels of HIV gene expression found in brain macrophages are associated with clinical disease in infected individuals.25 The mechanisms by which HIV infection results in immunosuppression and progressive neurological disease are the primary focus of this chapter.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Aseptic Meningitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard E. Gendelman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Seymour Gendelman
    • 3
  1. 1.HIV-Immunopathogenesis Program, Department of Cellular ImmunologyWalter Reed Army Institute of ResearchRockvilleUSA
  2. 2.Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military MedicineUniformed Services University Health Science CenterBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyMt. Sinai Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

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