The Metabolism of Benzene to Muconic Acid, a Potential Biological Marker of Benzene Exposure
Benzene, the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. It is a volatile compound, extensively used in industry as an important synthetic intermediate. It is also an additive in gasoline. In addition to occupational exposure, a major human exposure results from cigarette smoke (Wallace, 1989). The toxicity of benzene as a leukemogen in humans (Goldstein, 1977) and a hematotoxic and carcinogenic agent in experimental animals (Snyder and Kocsis, 1977; Maltoni et al., 1989) has been well established. It is generally accepted that benzene toxicity is mediated by metabolites (Snyder et al., 1981). The nature of the metabolite(s) responsible for benzene toxicity is at present not known.
KeywordsBenzene Exposure Percent Dose Muconic Acid Mouse Liver Microsome Carboxylic Acid Functional Group
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Goldstein, B.D. (1977). Hematotoxicity in humans. In: Benzene Toxicity: A Critical Evaluation. (Eds., J. Laskin and B.D. Goldstein). J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Supplement 2, pp. 69–105.Google Scholar
- Goldstein, B.D., Witz, G., Javid, J., Amoruso, M., Rossman, T., and Wolder, B. (1982). Muconaldehyde, a potential toxic intermediate of benzene metabolism. In Biological Reactive Intermediates ( R. Snyder, D.V. Parke, J.J. Kocsis, D. Jallow, G.G. Gibson, and C.M. Witmer, Eds.), Vol. 2 pp. 331–339. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
- Kirley, T.A., Goldstein, B.D., Maniara, W.M., and Witz, G. (1989). Metabolism of trans,trans-muconaldehyde, a microsomal hematotoxic metabolite of benzene, by purified yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase and a mouse liver soluble fraction. Toxicol. App/. Pharmacol. 100, 360–367.Google Scholar
- Lundquist, F. (1958). Enzymic determination of acetaldehyde in blood. Biochemistry 68, 172–177.Google Scholar
- Maltoni, C., Ciliberti, G., Cotti, G., Conti, B., and Belpoggi, F. (1989). Benzene, an experimental multipotential carcinogen: Results of the long)term bioassays performed at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Environ. Health Perspect. 82, 109–124.Google Scholar
- Snyder, R., Lee, L.S., and Witmer, C.M. (1981). Biochemical Toxicology of benzene. In Reviews in Biochemical Toxicology (E. Hodgson, J.R. Bend, and R.M. Philpot, Eds.,) Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 123–153.Google Scholar
- Witz, G., Maniara, W., Mylavarapu, V., and Goldstein, B.D. (1990). Comparative metabolism of benzene and trans,trans-muconaldehyde to trans,trans-muconic acid in DBA/2N and C57BL/6 mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. In Press.Google Scholar