Parenchymal and Nonparenchymal Cell Interactions in Hepatotoxicity
Hepatic nonparenchymal cells represent approximately 30–35% of the cells in the liver. The majority of these cells, which include Kupffer cells, endothelial cells, fat storing cells and pit cells reside within the hepatic sinusoids. Because of their small size relative to hepatocytes and the small volume that they occupy in the liver, nonparenchymal liver cells have largely been ignored in studies aimed at elucidating cellular mechanisms of heptotoxicity. However, following exposure to hepatotoxic chemicals, nonparenchymal cells become “activated”. They release large quantities of highly reactive mediators such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, eicosinoids and proteolytic enzymes which have the capacity to damage hepatic tissue. Thus these cells may contribute to pathophysiologic processes leading to toxicity.
KeywordsEndothelial Cell Kupffer Cell Reactive Oxygen Intermediate Nonparenchymal Cell Reactive Mediator
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