Selective Alteration of Cytokeratin Intermediate Filament by Cyclosporine A is a Lethal Toxicity in PTK2 Cell Cultures
The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells contain a series of three filamentous structures, microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that are termed the cytoskeleton. Cytokeratin, one type of intermediate filament, has no known physiological function, yet, can comprise up to 30% of the total cytoplasmic protein content. As there are no selective toxins to cytokeratins, it is not known if alterations to these hydrophobic filaments is a lethal event. Cyclosporine A, a novel hydrophobic immunosuppressant compound used to prevent allograft rejection, may show a selective toxicity to the cytokeratin filaments. This effect is seen in PtK2 cell cultures as a single large perinuclear aggregate of collapsed cytokeratin filaments (5 mM, 72 hr). Microtubules and microfilaments are not affected in PtK2 cell cultures (5 mM, 72 hr). Increased LDH levels into cell culturing media occur soon after cyclosporine exposure to PtK2 cell cultures (5 mM, 2 hr). Cytokeratin filaments show no changes at 12 hr exposure but show thickening, decreased plasma membrane attachments and some peri-nuclear ring formations at 24 hr (5 mM, 24 hr). Cyclosporine G, an analog of cyclosporine A, does not exhibit the cytokeratin filament collapse (5 mM, 72 hr). The effect of cyclosporine A on DNA binding protein (Mr 64 kd), believed to be a nuclear scaffolding protein related to intermediate filaments, exhibited an early invagination and folding of the nuclear membrane (5 mM, 4 hr). Due to a hydrophobic bonding potential between cyclosporine A and cytokeratin and cytokeratin-like intermediate filaments, cyclosporin A may be a selective cytokeratin toxin. Alteration of the cytokeratin filaments in PtK2 cell cultures may be a lethal event.
KeywordsIntermediate Filament Nuclear Matrix Amide Hydrogen PtK2 Cell Selective Alteration
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