Environmental Risk Factors in Parkinson’s Disease
The clinical syndrome of parkinsonism can be caused by a variety of insults to the basal ganglia . Idiopathic parkinsonism or Parkinson’s disease is a distinct clinical entity with a defined neuropathology and neurochemistry. Neurons of the substantia nigra are degenerated and contain inclusion bodies called Lewy bodies . There is disruption of neurotransmission in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway because of nigral cell death. This results in a deficiency of dopamine in the striatum which is the neurochemical basis of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative condition for which the cause is unknown. Why do cells of the substantia nigra selectively die? New therapies or even preventative measures could be introduced if the etiology of Parkinson’s disease could be found.
KeywordsSubstantia Nigra Environmental Risk Factor Rural Environment Environmental Toxin Distinct Clinical Entity
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Koller W.C. Classification of Parkinson’s disease, in: Handbook of Parkinson’s Disease, Koller W.C., ed. Marcel-Dekker, New York (1989).Google Scholar
- 3.Lang A.E. Genetics, in: Handbook of Parkinson’s disease, Koller W.C., ed., Marcel-Dekker, New York, 99, (1987)Google Scholar
- 7.Caine D.B., Langston J.W., On the etiology of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet 2: 1457 (1983).Google Scholar
- 15.Koller W.C., Weldon G., Dolezal J., Chin T., Hassanein R., Environmental risk factors in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 39: 363 (1989).Google Scholar
- 17.Aquilonius S.M., Hartvig P., Utilization of antiparkinsonian drugs in Sweden. Upsala J. Med. Sci. 43: 93 (1986).Google Scholar
- 19.Langston J.W., Etiology of Parkinson’s disease, in: Handbook of Parkinson’s Disease, Koller W.C. ed., Marcel-Dekker: New York, (1986).Google Scholar
- 20.Jimenez-Jimenez F.J., Gonzales D.N., Jimenez-Rpiden S., Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Parkinson’s disease, World Congress of Neurology, p 118, (1988).Google Scholar