Rapid Eye Movements During Stage REM are Modulated by Nigrostriatal Dopamine Neurons?
Rapid eye movements (REMs), the symbolic parameter of stage REM (sREM), are saccadic, conjugate eye movements during sleep and are known to be modulated by cholinergic neurons in the brainstem (Sakai, 1984; Hobson et al., 1974) but their neural network has remained unclarified. On the other hand, voluntary saccadic eye movements have been shown to be controlled by the pathway from the frontal eye field via the basal ganglia to the superior colliculus through the caudate nucleus and pars reticulata of the substantia nigra with double GABAergic inhibitory systems (Hikosaka and Wurtz, 1983; Hikosaka et al.,1989). From polysomnographical examinations on various kinds of basal ganglia diseases including the levodopa responsive fluctuating dystonia, that is, hereditary progressive dystonía with marked diurnal fluctuation (HPD), we have revealed that the nigrostriatal dopamine (NS-DA) neurons modulate the number and direction of REMs, probably through the caudate-nigrasuperior colliculus pathway, the same as the voluntary saccade.
KeywordsBasal Ganglion Superior Colliculus Sleep Stage Side Preference Voluntary Saccade
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