Neuropeptide Y Neurons in the Striatal Network. Functional Adaptive Responses to Impairment of Striatal Inputs
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid peptide enriched with tyrosine residues first isolated from porcine brain extracts (Tatemoto, 1982; Tatemoto et al, 1982), is thought to be the neuroactive member of the pancreatic polypeptide family (Di Maggio et al, 1985). It is one of the most abundant and widely distributed peptides isolated so far within the mammalian central nervous system and it shows a distinctive pattern of distribution as compared with other neuropeptides. The most salient feature of its distribution is the high concentration centred on the striatum, especially in the human brain (Adrian et al, 1983; Allen et al, 1983). Immunohistochemical studies have shown that NPY is present in numerous cell bodies and fibers in both the dorsal striatum or caudate putamen (CP) and the ventral striatum or nucleus accumbens (NAcc) (Adrian et al, 1983; Allen et al, 1983; De Quidt and Emson,1986; Smith et al, 1985). Within these structures and in related cortical areas NPY has been reported to coexist extensively with somatostatin and the enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphatediaphorase (NADPH-D) (Chronwall et al, 1984; Gaspar et al, 1987; Kowall et al, 1987; Smith and Parent, 1986; Vincent et al, 1982; 1983). The presence of high levels of NPY in the basal ganglia nuclei has suggested that this peptide may play a fundamental role in the control of sensorimotor function and has led to detailed investigations on the morphological features and cellular relationships of the NPY neurons within these structures. The purpose of the present report is to briefly review data from biochemical and immunohistochemical studies in an attempt to clarify the anatomical and functional position of NPY elements in the striatal network (dorsal striatum).
KeywordsCaudate Putamen Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Pathway Basal Ganglion Nucleus Striatal Network Avian Pancreatic Polypeptide
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