Electrophysiological Study of Dyskinesia Produced by Microinjection of Picrotoxin into the Striatum of the Rat

  • Shinichi Muramatsu
  • Mitsuo Yoshida
  • Satoshi Nakamura
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 39)


From the findings in human diseases, such as the main pathological change in Huntington’s disease is an atrophy of caudate neurons, striatum has been related to dyskinesia. It was, however, difficult to produce an animal model of dyskinesia by electrostimulation or lesioning of the striatum. In the 1970’s, by pharmacological manipulation of the striatum, a model of dyskinesia was reported; that is, injection of picrotoxin (PTX), a selective antagonist of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), into the striatum of the rat and cat produced dyskinesia similar to choreiform or myoclonic movements (McKenzie and Viik, 1975; Tarsy et al., 1978). The underlying neuronal mechanism of the dyskinesia, however, is not yet fully understood. In this paper, we performed the following experiments to define more precisely the nature of the dyskinesia and to elucidate the underlying neuronal mechanism. 1) We studied behaviorally the influence of the dopaminergic system on the dyskinesia, since dopamine is closely related to choreiform dyskinesia as L-DOPA induced dyskinesia. 2) We investigated electrophysiologically changes in neuronal activities in the striatum and its output structures during dyskinesia.


Firing Pattern Spontaneous Firing Biceps Brachii Muscle Spike Potential Midbrain Reticular Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akaike, A., Ohno Y., Sasa M. and Takaori S., 1987, Excitatory and inhibitory effects of dopamine on neuronal activity of the caudate nucleus neurons in vitro,Brain Res., 418: 262 – 272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Calabresi P., Mercuri N., Stanzione P., Stefani A., and Bernardi G., 1987, Intracellular studies on the dopamine-induced firing inhibition of neostriatal neurons in vitro: Evidence for D1 receptor involvement,Neuroscience., 20: 757 – 771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chevalier, G., Vacher, S., Deniau, J. M., and Desban, M., 1985, Disinhibition as a basic process in the expression of striatal functions.I. The striato-nigral influence on tecto-spinal/tectodiencephalic neurons,Brain Res., 334: 215 – 226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deniau, J. M., and Chevalier, G., 1985, Disinhibition as a basic process in the expression of striatal functions.II. The striato-nigral influence on thalamocortical cells of the ventromedial thalamic nucleus,Brain Res., 334: 227 – 233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Grace, A. and Bunny, B., 1979, Paradoxical GABA excitation of nigral dopaminergic cells: indirect mediation through reticurata inhibitory neurons,Eur. J. Pharmacol., 59: 211–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hikosaka, O. and Sakamoto, M., 1986, Cell activity in monkey caudate nucleus preceding saccadic eye movements,Exp. Brain Res., 63: 659 – 662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McKenzie, G. M, and Viik, K., 1975, Chemically induced choreiform activity: Antagonism by GABA and EEG patterns,Exp. Neurol., 46: 229–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Muramatsu, S., Yoshida, M. and Nakamura, S., 1989, Electrophysiological study of dyskinesia produced by microinjection of picrotoxin in the striatum of the rat,Neurosci. Res. in press.Google Scholar
  9. Pellegrino, L. J., Pellegrino, A. S., and Cushman, A. J., 1979, “A stereotaxic atlas of the rat brain”, 2nd ed., Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Slater, P., and Dickinson, S. L., 1982, Role of acetylcholine and dopamine in myoclonus induced by intrastriatal picrotoxin,Neurosci. Lett., 28: 253 – 257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Tarsy, D., Pycock, C. J., Meldrum, B. S., and Marsden, C. D., 1978, Focal contralateral myoclonus produced by inhibition of GABA action in the caudate nucleus of rats,Brain, 101: 143 – 162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ueki, A., 1983, The mode of nigro-thalamic transmission investigated with intracellular recording from cat thalamus,Exp. Brain Res., 49: 116 – 124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Yoshida, M. and Precht W., 1971, Monosynaptic inhibition of neurons of the substantia nigra by caudate-nigral fibers,Brain Res., 32: 225 – 228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shinichi Muramatsu
    • 1
  • Mitsuo Yoshida
    • 1
  • Satoshi Nakamura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyJichi Medical SchoolTochigiJapan

Personalised recommendations