The Connections of the Medial Part of the Subthalamic Nucleus in the Rat: Evidence for a Parallel Organization
The anatomical relationships of the subthalamic nucleus (STh) with ventral striatopallidal parts of the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortical areas were studied in the rat, using anterograde and retrograde tracing methods. The anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin was injected in the STh, the prefrontal cortex, the globus pallidus, the ventral pallidum, and the parafascicular thalamic nucleus. Injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold were placed in the globus pallidus and the ventral pallidum. The results of these experiments reveal that the medial part of the STh and the adjacent lateral hypothalamic area are reciprocally connected with ventral parts of the basal ganglia and receive projections from the prefrontal cortex and the medial part of the parafascicular nucleus. The connections are organized in parallel to those of the lateral part of the STh. Furthermore, three zones can be identified in the medial part of the STh and the adjacent lateral hypothalamic area, each having parallel connections with distinct parts of the pallidum and receiving projections from different prefrontal cortical areas. The present findings suggest that the subthalamic nucleus is also involved in non-motor functions.
KeywordsPrefrontal Cortex Globus Pallidus Medial Part Subthalamic Nucleus Lateral Hypothalamic Area
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Berendse, H.W., and Groenewegen, H.J., 1990, The organization of the thalamostriatal projections in the rat, with special emphasis on the ventral striatum, Submitted.Google Scholar
- Groenewegen, H.J., and Berendse, H.W., 1990, Connections of the subthalamic nucleus with ventral striatopallidal parts of the basal ganglia in the rat, J. Comp. Neurol., in press.Google Scholar
- Groenewegen, H.J., and Wouterlood, F.G., 1990, Light and electron microscopic tracing of neuronal connections with Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), and combinations with other neuroanatomical techniques, in: “Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy”, Vol. 8, A. Björklund, T. Hbkfelt, F.G. Wouterlood, and A. Van den Pol, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 47.Google Scholar
- Groenewegen, H.J., Berendse, H.W., Wolters, J.G., and Lohman, A.H.M., 1990, The anatomical relationship of the prefrontal cortex with the striatopallidal system, the thalamus and the amygdala: evidence for a parallel organization, in: “The Prefrontal Cortex: its Structure, Function, and Pathology” (Prog. Brain Res.), H.B.M. Uylings, C.G. Van Eden, J.P.C. De Bruin, M.A. Corner, and M.G.P. Feenstra, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, in press.Google Scholar
- Hartmann-Von Monakow, K., Akert, K., and Künzle, H., 1978, Projections of the precentral motor cortex and other cortical areas of the frontal lobe to the subthalamic nucleus in the monkey, Exp. Brain Res., 33: 395.Google Scholar
- Heimer, L., and Wilson, R.D., 1975, The subcortical projections of the allocortex: similarities in the neural associations of the hippo-campus, the piriform cortex, and the neocortex, in: “Golgi Centennial Symposium”, M. Santini, ed., Raven Press, New York, p 177.Google Scholar
- Heimer, L., Alheid, G.F., and Zaborszky, L., 1985, Basal ganglia, in: “The Rat Nervous System”, G.W. Paxinos, ed., Academic Press, Sydney, p 37.Google Scholar
- Parent, A., Hazrati, L.-N., and Smith, Y., 1989, The subthalamic nucleus in primates. A neuroanatomical and immunohistochemical study, in: “Neural Mechanisms in Disorders of Movement”, A.R. Crossman, and M.A. Sambrook, eds., John Libbey, London, p 29.Google Scholar
- Schmued, L.C., and Fallon, J.H., 1986, Fluoro-Gold: a new fluorescent retrograde axonal tracer with numerous unique properties, Brain Res., 377: i47.Google Scholar