Myoblasts, Satellite Cells, and Myoblast Transfer
The prospects for introducing “foreign” nuclei through the cell fusion process have been considered since it first became clear that skeletal muscle fibers form by fusion of many mononucleated myoblasts rather than the proliferation of skeletal muscle nuclei within fibers (Stockdale and Holtzer, 1961). While cell fusion is cell type specific, there is no restriction in myoblast fusion across species, as skeletal myogenic cells from different species or classes of vertebrates are capable of adding nuclei to forming fibers (Yaffe and Feldman, 1965). The introduction of nuclei by PEG-mediated cell fusion has made it feasible to introduce a limited number of nuclei of non-myogenic cells into fibers in cell culture (Blau, 1983). However, specificity of cell recognition and fusion limits the introduction of new nuclei into existing fibers or into newly forming fibers to those cells that have been committed to a myogenic fate. The prospects of converting non-myogenic cells to myogenic cells by the transfection of commitment or determination genes broadens the repertoire of cells that could be used for contributing nuclei to muscle fibers using normal fusion mechanisms (Konieczny et al., 1986; Lassar et al., 1986; Weintraub et al., 1989).
KeywordsSatellite Cell Skeletal Muscle Fiber Myogenic Cell Nuclear Domain Slow Myosin Heavy Chain
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