Organizational Integration: Modeling Technology and Management

  • Brian R. Gaines


In many major areas of activity, the factory, the office, the hospital, there is a move towards computer integrated systems involving the total functioning of the organization. MAP, TOP, and MIB are not just network specifications, application-oriented expansions of the ISO-OSI parameters. They each involve new conceptual frameworks for the role of computers within their areas of application. They each entail major changes in the way their user organizations operate. This paper presents a model of the information technologies underlying computer-integrated systems, their relation to the structure and culture of the organization, the state of the art in those technologies at research, innovation and product line levels, and the potential and problems in their integration.


Expert System Knowledge Acquisition Corporate Culture Virtual Circuit Open System Interconnection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bartee, T. C., ed., 1986, Digital Communications, Sams, Indianapolis.Google Scholar
  2. Boeing, 1985, TOP: Technical and Office Protocols, Boeing Computer Services, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  3. Chalfan, K., 1986, An Expert System for Design Analysis, Coupling Symbolic and Numerical Computing in Expert Systems, Kowalik, J. S., ed., North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 179–190.Google Scholar
  4. Day, J. D., and Zimmerman, H., 1983, The OSI Reference Model, Proceedings IEEE, Vol. 71, No. 12, December, pp. 1334–1340.Google Scholar
  5. Deal, T. E., and Kennedy, A. A., 1982, Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  6. Gaines, B. R., 1984, Perspectives on Fifth Generation Computing, Oxford Surveys in Information Technology, Vol. 1, pp. 1–53.Google Scholar
  7. Gaines, B. R., 1986, Expert Systems and Simulation in Industrial Applications, Intelligent Simulation Environments, Luker, P. A., and Adelsberger, H. H., eds., Vol. 17, No. 1, (January), Society for Computer Simulation, LaJolla, California, pp. 144–149.Google Scholar
  8. Gaines, B. R., 1986, Sixth Generation Computing: A Conspectus of the Japanese Proposals, ACM SIGART Newsletter, (95), January, pp. 39–44.Google Scholar
  9. Gaines, B. R., 1986, Expert Systems and Simulation in the Design of an FMS Advisory System, Simulation in Manufacturing, Hurrion, R. D., ed., pp. 311–324, IFS Conferences, Bedford, UK.Google Scholar
  10. Gaines, B. R., 1988, Structure, Development and Applications of Expert Systems in Integrated Manufacturing, Artificial Intelligence Implications for CIM, Kusiak, A., ed., IFS Conferences, Bedford, UK, pp. 117–161.Google Scholar
  11. Gaines, B. R., 1988, Knowledge Acquisition: Developments and Advances, Expert Systems and Intelligent Manufacturing: Proceedings of the Second International Conference and the Leading Edge in Production Planning and Control, Oliff, M. D., ed., pp. 410–434, North-Holland, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Gaines, B. R., 1988, Software Engineering for Knowledge–based Systems, Proceedings of CASE’S Second International Workshop on Computer–Aided Software Engineering, 14–1–14–7.Google Scholar
  13. Gaines, B. R., 1988, A Conceptual Framework for Person-Computer Interaction in Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, to appear.Google Scholar
  14. Gaines, B. R., and Shaw, M. L. G., 1985, From Fuzzy Sets to Expert Systems, Information Science, Vol. 36, No. 1–2, July, pp. 5–16.Google Scholar
  15. Gaines, B. R., and Shaw, M. L. G., 1986, From Timesharing to the Sixth Generation: The Development of Human-Computer Interaction Part I, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, January, pp. 1–27.Google Scholar
  16. Gaines, B. R., and Shaw, M. L. G., 1986, Foundations of Dialog Engineering: The Development of Human-Computer Interaction Part II, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, February, pp. 101–123.Google Scholar
  17. General Motors, 1984, General Motors Manufacturing Automation Protocol, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan.Google Scholar
  18. Gordon, P. 1984, What is Integrated Software?, PC World, Vol. 2, No. 11, October, pp. 72–77. Hall, E. T., 1959, The Silent Language, Doubleday, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Leopold, G., 1986, Bus Standard for Hospitals is Next, Electronics, Vol. 59, No. 11, pp. 17–18, March. Miles, R. H., 1980, Macro Organizational Behavior, Scott Foresman, Glenview, Illinois.Google Scholar
  20. Moto-oka, T., ed., 1982, Fifth Generation Computing Systems, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  21. Nolan, R. L., 1983, Computer Data Bases: The Future is Now, Catching Up With the Computer Revolution, Salerno, L. M., ed., Wiley, New York, pp. 225–248.Google Scholar
  22. Shaw, M. L. G., and Gaines, B. R., 1988, A Methodology for Recognizing Consensus, Correspondence, Conflict and Contrast in a Knowledge Acquisition System, Proceedings of the Third AAAI Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop, Banff, November.Google Scholar
  23. STA, 1985, Promotion of RandD on Electronics and Information Systems That May Complement or Substitute for Human Intelligence, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  24. Wenstop, F., 1981, Deductive Verbal Models of Organizations, Fuzzy Reasoning and its Applications, Mamdani, E. H., and Gaines, B. R., eds., pp. 149-167, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian R. Gaines
    • 1
  1. 1.Knowledge Science InstituteUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations