Advertisement

Strains of Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Implications for Vaccine Development

  • Larry J. Anderson

Abstract

Within a few years after its discovery in 1957, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was shown to be the single most important pathogen of acute lower respiratory tract illness among infants and young children worldwide. In the 1960’s and 1970’s multiple attempts to develop a vaccine failed. The first vaccine was formalin-inactivated, alum precipitated virus grown in primary monkey kidney cells that was evaluated in four field trials (Chin et al. 1969; Fulginiti et al. 1969; Kapikian et al. 1969; Kim et al. 1969). The vaccine induced a good serologic response to RSV but failed to protect the vaccinee from infection and, vaccinees <2 yrs old experienced more severe RSV disease than those not vaccinated. This increase in serious disease is illustrated in Table 1 for one of the trials. Live virus vaccines also failed (Belshe et al. 1982; McKay et al. 1988; Tyeryar, 1983; Wright et al. 1976, 1982). Some vaccine strains reverted to wild phenotype virus during clinical trials and others failed to induce an adequate antibody response. These failures have led researchers to conclude that a better understanding of the virus and the virus host interaction is needed to increase the chances of successfully developing an RSV vaccine.

Keywords

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Antigenic Site Complete Neutralization Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akerlind B, Norrby E (1986) Occurrence of respiratory syncytial virus subtypes A and B strains in Sweden. J Med Virol 19:241–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akerlind B, Norrby E, Orvell C, Mufson MA (1988) Respiratory syncytial virus: Heterogeneity of subgroup B strains. J Gen Virol 69:2145–2154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson LJ, Hierholzer JC, Tsou C, McIntosh K (1983) Characterization of respiratory syncytial virus strains using monoclonal antibodies. In, Program and abstracts of the Twenty-third Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, New Orleans, Louisiana: American Society of Microbioloby, Abstract #926.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson LJ, Hierholzer JC, Tsou C, Hendry RM, Fernie BF, Stone Y, Mclntosh K (1985) Antigenic characterization of respiratory syncytial virus strains with monoclonal antibodies. J Infect Dis 151:626–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson LJ, Bingham P, Hierholzer JC (1988a) Neutralization of respiratory syncytial virus by individual and mixtures of F and G protein monoclonal antibodies. J Virol 62:4232–4238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson LJ, Hendry RM, Pierik LT, Mclntosh K (1988b) Multicenter study of strains of respiratory syncytial virus. In, Program and abstracts of the Twenty-eighth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington,D.C: American Society for Microbiology, Abstract #211.Google Scholar
  7. Bangham CRM, Askonas BA (1986) Murine cytotoxic T cells specific to respiratory syncytial virus recognize different antigenic subtypes of the virus. J Gen Virol 67:623–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bangham CRM, Cannon MJ, Karzon DT, Askonas BA (1985) Cytotoxic T-cell response to respiratory syncytial virus in mice. J Virol 56:55–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bangham CRM, Openshaw PJM, Ball LA, King AMQ, Wertz GW, Askonas BA (1986) Human and murine cytotoxic T cells specific to respiratory syncytial virus recognize the viral nucleoprotein (N), but not the major glycoprotein (G), expressed by vaccinia virus recombinants. J Immunol 137:3973–3977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beeler JA, Coelingh KVW (1989) Neutralization of epitopes of the F glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus: Effect of mutation upon fusion function. J Virol 63:2941–2950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beem M (1967) Repeated infections with respiratory syncytial virus. J Immunol 98:1115–1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Belshe RB, Van Voris LP, Mufson MA (1982) Parenteral administration of live respiratory syncytial virus vaccine: Results of a field trial. J Infect Dis 145:311–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cannon MJ, Bangham CRM (1989) Recognition of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein by mouse cytotoxic T cell clones and a human cytotoxic T cell line. J Gen Virol 70:79–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Centers for Disease Control (1986) Respiratory syncytial virus Oklahoma. MMWR 35:162–164.Google Scholar
  15. Chin J, Magoffin RL, Shearer LA, Schieble JH, Lennette EH (1969) Field evaluation of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine and a trivalent parainfluenza virus vaccine in a pediatric population. Am J Epidemiol 89:449–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Coates HV, Chanock RM (1962) Experimental infection with respiratory syncytial virus in several species of animals. Am J Hyg 76:302–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Coates HV, Kendrick L, Chanock RM (1963) Antigenic differences between two strains of respiratory syncytial virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 112:958–964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Doggett JE, Taylor-Robinson D (1965) Serological studies with respiratory syncytial virus. Arch ges Virusforsch 15:601–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Finger F, Anderson LJ, Dicker RC, Harrison B, Doan R, Downing A, Corey L (1987) Epidemic infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus in institutionalized young adults. J Infect Dis 155:1335–1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fulginiti VA, Eller JJ, Sieber OF, Joyner JW, Minamitani M, Meiklejohn G (1969) Respiratory virus immunization: I. A field of two inactivated respiratory virus vaccines; an aqueous trivalent parainfluenza virus vaccine and an alum-precipitated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. Am J Epidemiol 89:435–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gimenez HB, Cash P, Melvin WT (1984) Monoclonal antibodies to human respiratory syncytial virus and their use in comparison of different virus isolates. J Gen Virol 65:963–971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Glezen WP, Paredes A, Allison JE, Taber LH, Frank AL (1981) Risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection for infants from low-income families in relationship to age, sex, ethnic group, and maternal antibody level. J Pediatr 98:708–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Glezen WP, Taber LH, Frank AL, Kasel JA (1986) Risk of primary infection and reinfection with respiratory syncytial virus. Am J Dis Child 140:543–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hall WJ, Hall CB, Speers DM (1978) Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults: Clinical, virologic, and serial pulmonary function studies. Ann Intern Med 88:203–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Henderson FW, Collier AM, Clyde WA, Denny FW (1979) Respiratory-syncytial-virus infections, reinfections and immunity: a prospective longitudinal study in young children N Engl J Med 300:530–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hendry RM, Talis AL, Godfrey E, Anderson LJ, Fernie BF, McIntosh K (1986) Concurrent circulation of antigenically distinct strains of respiratory syncytial virus during community outbreaks. J Infect Dis 153:291–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hendry RM, Burns JC, Walsh EE, Graham BS, Wright PF, Hemming VG, Ridriquez WJ, Kim HW, Prince GA, Mclntosh K, Chanock RM, Murphy BR (1988) Strain-specific serum antibody responses in infants undergoing primary infection with respiratory syncytial virus. J Infect Dis 157:640–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hendry RM, Pierik LT, Mclntosh K (1989) Prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus subgroups over six consecutive outbreaks: 1981–1987. J Infect Dis 160:185–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson PR, Jr., Olmsted RA, Prince GA, Murphy BR, Ailing DW, Walsh EE, Collins PL (1987) Antigenic relatedness between glycoproteins of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B: Evaluation of the contributions of F and G glycoproteins to immunity. J Virol 61:3163–3166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson PR, Collins PL (1989) The IB (NS1) and N proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) of antigenic subgroups A and B: Sequence conservation and divergence within RSV genomic RNA. J Gen Virol 70:1539–1547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kapikian AZ, Mitchell RH, Chanock RM, Shvedoff RA, Stewart CE (1969) An epidemiologic study of altered clinical reactivity to respiratory syncytial (RS) virus infection in children previously vaccinated with an inactivated RS virus vaccine. Am J Epidemiol 89:405–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim HW, Canchola JG, Brandt CD, Pyles G, Chanock RM, Jensen K, Parrott RH (1969) Respiratory syncytial virus disease in infants despite prior administration of antigenic inactivated vaccine. Am J Epidemiol 89:422–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Mathur U, Bentley DW, Hall CB (1980) Concurrent respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A infections in the institutionalized elderly and chronically ill. Ann Intern Med 93:49–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McKay E, Higgins P, Tyrrell D, Pringle C (1988) Immunogenicity and pathogenicity of temperature-sensitive modified respiratory syncytial virus in adult volunteers. J Med Virol 25:411–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Morgan LA, Routledge EG, Willcocks MM, Samson ACR, Scott R, Toms GL (1987) Strain variation of respiratory syncytial virus. J Gen Virol 68:2781–2788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mufson MA, Orvell C, Rafnar B, Norrby E (1985) Two distinct subtypes of human respiratory syncytial virus. J Gen Virol 66:2111–2124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mufson MA, Belshe RB, Orvell C, Norrby E (1987) Subgroup characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus strains recovered from children with two consecutive infections. J Clin Microbiol 25:1535–1539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Mufson MA, Belshe RB, Orvell C, Norrby E (1988) Respiratory syncytial virus epidemics: Variable dominance of subgroups A and B strains among children, 1981–1986. J Infect Dis 157:143–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ogilvie MM, Vathenen AS, Radford M, Codd J, Key S (1981) Maternal antibody and respiratory syncytial virus infection in infancy. J Med Virol 7:263–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Olmsted RA, Elango N, Prince GA, Murphy BR, Johnson PR, Moss B, Chanock RM, Collins PL (1986) Expression of the F glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus by a recombinant vaccinia virus: Comparison of the individual contributions of the F and G glycoproteins to host immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:7462–7466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Openshaw PJM, Pemberton RM, Ball LA, Wertz GW, Askonas BA (1988) Helper T cell recognition of respiratory syncytial virus in mice. J Gen Virol 69:305–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Orvell C, Norrby E, Mufson MA (1987) Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against five structural components of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup B. J Gen Virol 68:3125–3135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Parrott RH, Kim HW, Arrobio JO, Hodes DS, Murphy BR, Brandt CD, Camargo E, Chanock RM (1973) Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infection in Washington, D.C. II. Infection and disease with respect to age, immunologic status, race and sex. Am J Epidemiol 98:289–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Pemberton RM, Cannon MJ, Openshaw PJM, Ball LA, Wertz GW, Askonas BA (1987) Cytotoxic T cell specificity for respiratory syncytial virus proteins: Fusion protein is an important target antigen. J Gen Virol 68:2177–2182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Prince GA, Horswood RL, Chanock RM (1985) Quantitative aspects of passive immunity to respiratory syncytial virus infection in infant cotton rats. J Virol 55:517–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Routledge EG, Willcocks MM, Morgan L, Samson ACR, Scott R, Toms GL (1987) Heterogeneity of the respiratory syncytial virus 22K protein revealed by western blotting with monoclonal antibodies. J Gen Virol 68:1209–1215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Routledge EG, Willcocks MM, Samson ACR, Morgan L, Scott R, Anderson JJ, Toms GL (1988) The purification of four respiratory syncytial virus proteins and their evaluation as protective agents against experimental infection in BALB/c mice. J Gen Virol 69:293–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Storch GA, Park CS (1987) Monoclonal antibodies demonstrate heterogeneity in the G glycoprotein of prototype strains and clinical isolates of respiratory syncytial virus. J Med Virol 22:345–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stott EJ, Taylor G, Ball LA, Anderson K, Young KK-Y, King AMQ, Wertz GW (1987) Immune and histopathological responses in animals vaccinated with recombinant vaccinia viruses that express individual genes of human respiratory syncytial virus. J Virol 61:3855–3861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Taylor CE, Morrow S, Scott M, Young B, Toms GL (1989) Comparative virulence of respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B. Lancet 1:777–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tsutsumi H, Onuma M, Suga K, Honjo T, Chiba Y, Chiba S, Ogra PL (1988) Occurrence of respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A and B strains in Japan, 1980 to 1987. J Clin Microbiol 26:1171–1174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Tyeryar FJ (1983) Report of a workshop on respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza viruses. J Infect Dis 148:588–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Walsh EE, Hall CB, Briselli M, Brandriss MW, Schlesinger JJ (1987) Immunization with glycoprotein subunits of respiratory syncytial virus to protect cotton rats against viral infection. J Infect Dis 155:1198–1204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wathen MW, Brideau RJ, Thomsen DR (1989) Immunization of cotton rats with the human respiratory syncytial virus F glycoprotein produced using a baculovirus vector. J Infect Dis 159:255–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wright PF, Shinozaki T, Fleet W, Sell SH, Thompson J, Karzon DT (1976) Evaluation of a live, attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in infants. J Pediatr 88:931–936.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wright PF, Belshe RB, Kim HW, Van Voris LP, Chanock RM (1982) Administration of a highly attenuated, live respiratory syncytial virus vaccine to adults and children. Infect Immun 37:397–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Yewdell JW, Gerhard W (1981) Antigenic characterization of viruses by monoclonal antibodies. Annu Rev Microbiol 35:185–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larry J. Anderson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious DiseasesCenters for Disease ControlAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations