Genetic Toxicology of Airborne Particulate Matter Using Cytogenetic Assays and Microbial Mutagenicity Assays
Part of the
Environmental Science Research
book series (ESRH, volume 39)
The mutagenicity of airborne particulate matter was assayed using four different tests, namely, the Ames Salmonella test, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and the micronucleus (MN) test in human lymphocytes. Two types of extracts were used for all the tests. The first was a sample obtained from urban air in winter which showed high mutagenic activity. The second was a summer sample, again from urban air, which showed very low activity. The particulate matter was assayed as a whole organic extract, and in the form of different fractions. In the first sample, we observed that SCE and CA tests were more sensitive than the Ames test. Since both tests in eukaryotic cells are time-consuming and expensive, we tried to assess the value of the MN test with a second sample showing low activity. Again, the three cytogenetic tests were more sensitive than the test on Salmonella, and in particular the MN test seems to be a useful test in conjunction with the Ames test. As a first screening, it could substitute for the other two tests.
KeywordsChromosomal Aberration Human Lymphocyte Organic Extract Acid Fraction Airborne Particle
Adams, K., A. Lafi, and James M. Parry (1988) The elastogenic activity of 1.6-dinitropyrene in peripheral human lymphocytes. Mutat. Res.
Alink, G.M., H.A. Bmit, J.J. van Houdt, J.R. Kolkman, and J.S.M. Boleij (1983) Mutagenic activity of airborne particles at non-industrial locations. Mutat. Res.
Bandhun, N., and G. Obe (1985) Mutagenicity of methyl 2-benzi-midazolecarbamate, diethylstilbestrol and estradiol: Structural chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges, C-mitoses, polyploidies and micronuclei. Mutat. Res.
Bauchinger, M., E. Schmid, F.J. Wiebel, and E. Roscher (1988) 1,6-Dinitropyrene causes spindle disturbances and chromosomal damage in V79 Chinese hamster cells. Mutat. Res.
Clemo, G.R., E.W. Miller, and F.C. Pybus (1955) The carcinogenic action of city smoke. Brit. J. Cancer
Crebelli, R., S. Fuselli, A. Meneguz, G. Aquilina, L. Conti, P. Leopardi, A. Zijno, F. Baris, and A. Carere (1988) In vitro and in vivo mutagenicity studies with airborne particulate extracts. Mutat. Res.
Epstein, S.S., S. Joshi, J. Andrea, N. Mantel, E. Sawicki, T. Stanley, and E.C. Tabor (1966) Carcinogenicity of organic particu late pollutants in urban air after administration of trace quantities to neonatal mice. Nature
Fenech, M., and A.A. Morly (1986) Cytokinesis-block micronucleus method in human lymphocytes: Effect of in vivo ageing and low dose X-irradiation. Mutat. Res.
Haddle, J. A., M. Hite, B. Kirkhart, K. Mavournin, J.T. MacGregor, G.W. Newell, and M.F. Salamone (1983) The induction of micronuclei as a measure of genotoxicity. A report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program. Mutat. Res.
Hadnagy, W., N.H. Seemayer, and R. Tomingas (1986) Cytogenetic effects of airborne particulate matter in human lymphocytes in vitro. Mutat. Res.
Hadnagy, W., and N.H. Seemayer (1988) Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of extract of particulate emission from a gasoline-powered engine. Env. Molec. Mutagen.
Hadnagy, W., N.H. Seemayer, R. Tomingas, and K. Ivanfy (1989) Comparative study of sister-chromatid exhcanges and chromosomal aberrations induced by airborne particulates from an urban and a highly industrialized location in human lymphocyte cultures. Mutat. Res.
Krishna, G., J. Nath, and T. Ong (1984) Correlative genotoxicity studies of airborne particles in Salmonella typhimurium
and cultured human lymphocytes. Env. Mutagen
Krishna, G., J. Nath, L. Soler, and T. Ong (1986) Comparative in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity studies of airborne particle extract in mice. Mutat. Res.
Lockard, J.M., C.J. Viau, C. Lee-Stephens, J.P. wojciechowski, H.G. Enoch, and P.S. Sabharwal (1981) Induction of sister chromatid exchanges and bacterial revertants by organic extracts of airborne particles. Env. Mutagen.
Maron, D.M., and B.N. Ames (1983) Revised methods for the Salmonella mutagenicity test. Mutat. Res.
McCann, J., and B.N. Ames (1976) Detection of carcinogens as mutagens in Salmonella/microsome test: Assy of 300 chemicals: Discussion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A.
Migliere, L., R. Barale, D. Belluomini, A.G. Cognetti, and N. Loprieno (1987) Cytogenetic damage induced in human lymphocytes by adriamycin and vincristine: A comparison between micronucleus and chromosomal aberration assays. Toxicol. In Vitro
Migliore, L., M. Nieri, S. Amodio, and N. Loprieno (1989) The human lymphocyte micronucleus assay: A comparison between whole blood and separated lymphocyte cultures. Mutat. Res.
(in press).Google Scholar
Motykiewitz, G., J. Michalska, J. Szeliga, and B. Cimander (1988) Mutagenic and elastogenic activity of direct-acting component from air pollutants of the Silasian region. Mutat. Res.
Norppa, H., H. Vainio, and M. Sorsa (1983) Metabolic activation of styrene by erythrocytes detected as increased sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human lymphocytes. Cancer. Res.
Tokiwa, H., S. Kitamori, R. Nakagawa, K. Horikawa, and L. Matamala (1983) Demonstration of a powerful mutagenic dinitropyrene in airborne particulate matter. Mutat. Res.
Wagida, A.A., and M. Kamal (1988) Cytogenetic effects in a group of traffic policement in Cairo. Mutat. Res. 208:225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
© Plenum Press, New York 1990