Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Properties of Chlorinated Furanones: Important by-Products of Water Chlorination
Mutagenic activity is frequently detectable in organic concentrates of drinking water derived from surface waters (11). Because most mutagens tested to date are animal carcinogens and because mutagens may induce heritable alterations in germ cells, there is concern as to whether or not the presence of mutagenic chemicals in drinking water represent an acceptable human health risk. Identification of the mutagenic components of drinking water is needed before an accurate assessment of the health risks can be made. Methods have been developed for the isolation and identification of mutagens in drinking water (24), but the task of ascribing mutagenicity levels to specific chemical contaminants has proved difficult.
KeywordsSkin Tumor Mouse Bone Marrow Water Chlorination Genotoxic Activity Ethyl Carbamate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 4.Daniel, F.B., G.R. Olson, and J.A. Stober (1989) The induction of G.I. tract nuclear anomalies by 3-chloro-4(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy -2(5H)-furanone, a chlorine disinfection by-product, in the male B6C3F1 mouse (ms. in prep.).Google Scholar
- 5.Daniel, F.B., E.L.C. Lin, H.P. Ringhand, R.G. Miller, A.B. DeAn-gelo, and J.R. Meier (1989) 3-Chloro-4(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone, a potent mutagen isolated from chlorine-disinfected drinking water, forms DNA adducts in vivo (ms. in prep.).Google Scholar
- 6.Fielding, M., and H. Horth (1986) Formation of mutagens and chemicals during water treatment chlorination. Water Supply 4:103–126.Google Scholar
- 9.Horth, H., M. Fielding, T. Gibson, H.A. James, and H. Ross (1989) Identification of mutagens in drinking water. Water Research Centre Technical Report. PRD 2038-M, Medmenham, England.Google Scholar
- 10.Kronberg, L., and T. Vartianen (1988) Ames mutagenicity and concentration of the strong mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hy-droxy-2(5H)-furanone and of its geometric isomer (E)-2-chloro-3-(di-chloromethyl)-4-oxo-butenoic acid in chlorine-treated tap waters. Mutat. Res. 206:177–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Meier, J.R., R.B. Knohl, W.E. Coleman, H.P. Ringhand, J.W. Munch, W.H. Kaylor, R.P. Sreicher, and F.C. Kopfler (1987) Studies on the potent bacterial mutagen, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone: Aqueous stability, XAD recovery and analytical determination in drinking water and in chlorinated humic acid solutions. Mutat. Res. 189:363–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Meier, J.R., A.B. DeAngelo, F.B. Daniel, K.M. Schenck, M.F. Skelly, and S.L. Huang (1989) DNA adduct formation in bacterial and mammalian cells by 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2-(5H)-furanone (MX). Env. Molec. Muta. 14(Suppl. 15): 128.Google Scholar
- 19.Meier, J.R., R.B. Knohl, B.A. Merrick, and C.L. Smallwood (1989) Importance of glutathione in the invitro detoxification of 3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone, an important mutagenic by-product of water chlorination. In Water Chlorination: Chemistry, Environmental Impact and Health Effects, Vol. 6, R.L. Jolley et al., eds. Lewis Publishers, Ann Arbor, MI (in press).Google Scholar
- 21.Ringhand, H.P., W.H. Kaylor, R.G. Miller, and F.C. Kopfler (1989) Synthesis of 3–14C- 3-chloro-4- (dichloromethyl) -5-hydroxy-2 (5H) -furanone and its use in a tissue distribution study in the rat. Chemosphere 18:2229–2236.Google Scholar
- 22.Schmid, W. (1976) The micronucleus test for cytogenetic analysis. In Chemical Mutagens, Principles and Methods for Their Detection, Vol. 4, A. Hollaender, ed. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 31–53.Google Scholar
- 23.Streicher, R.P., H. Zimmer, J.R. Meier, R.B. Knohl, F.C. Kopfler, W.E. Coleman, J.W. Munch, and K.M. Schenck (1989) Structure-mutagenic activity relationships in chlorinated α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (sub. for publ.).Google Scholar