Genes of Human Catecholamine-Synthesizing Enzymes
Catecholamines (CA; i.e., dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline) are neurotransmitters in dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline neurons in the brain and play important roles in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. CA are synthesized from tyrosine in the following pathway: tyrosine → 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) →dopamine →noradrenaline → adrenaline. Thus, four enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of adrenaline: (1)tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), (2)aromatic Lamino acid decarboxylase (AADC, or DOPA decarboxylase, DDC), (3)dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and (4)phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. We have cloned and characterized cDNA’s of TH, AADC, DBH, and PNMT genes and genomic DNA’s of TH, DBH, and PNMT. We determined the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of human CA-synthesizing enzymes.
KeywordsTyrosine Hydroxylase Deduce Amino Acid Sequence Dopa Decarboxylase Alternative Polyadenylation Human Dopamine
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