Neurochemical Aspects of Parkinson’s Disease and the Dementing Brain Disorders: Relation to Brain Ageing

  • Oleh Hornykiewicz
  • Stephen J. Kish
  • Ali H. Rajput
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 38A)


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as well as idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) are brain disorders of older age. This raises the obvious question: Are perhaps age-dependent brain neurotransmitter changes involved in the etiology and clinical symptomatology typical of these neurodegenerative disorders? The typical neurotransmitter-related symptoms in question are: dementia in AD and signs of motor disorder in PD.


Down Syndrome Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Patient Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bartus R.T., Dean, R.L., Beer, B., and Lippa, A.C., 1982, The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction, Science, 217: 408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowen D.M., Smith, C.B., White, P., and Davison, A.N., 1986, Neurotransmitter-related enzymes and indices of hypoxia in senile dementia and other abiotrophics, Brain, 99: 459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlsson, A., and Winblad, B., 1976, Influence of age and time interval between death and autopsy on dopamine and 3-methoxytyramine levels in human basal ganglia, J.Neural Transm., 38: 271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coyle J.T., Price, D.L., and DeLong, M.R., 1983, Alzheimer’s disease: A disorder of cortical cholinergic innervation, Science, 219: 1184.Google Scholar
  5. Davies P., and Maloney, A.F.J., 1976, Selective loss of cerebral cholinergic neurones in Alzheimer’s disease, Lancet, 2: 1403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. DeLong M.R., Georgopoulos, A.P., and Crutcher, M.D., 1983, Cortico-basal ganglia relations and coding of motor performance, Exp.Brain Res., suppl. 7: 29.Google Scholar
  7. Evarts E.V., Kimura, M., Wurtz, R.H., and Hikosaka, 0., 1984, Behavioral correlates of activity in basal ganglia neurons, Trends Neurosci. 7: 447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gilbert, J.J., Kish, S.J., Chang, L.-J., Morito, C., Shannak, K., andGoogle Scholar
  9. Hornykiewicz, O., 1988, Dementia, parkinsonism, and motor neuron disease: Neurochemical and neuropathological correlates, Ann.Neurol., 24: 688.Google Scholar
  10. Godridge, H., Reynolds, G.P., Czudek, C., Calcutt, N.A., and Benton, M., 1987, Alzheimer-like neurotransmitter deficits in adult Down’s syndrome brain tissue, J.Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiat., 50: 775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hornykiewicz, 0., 1988, The pathochemical perspectives of Parkinson’s disease - an attempt at a neurochemical definition, Functional Neurol. 3: 379.Google Scholar
  12. Hornykiewicz, 0., Pifl, Ch., Kish, S.J., Shannak, K., and Schingnitz, G., 1989, Biochemical changes in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, ageing and MPTP parkinsonism: similarities and differences, in: “Parkinsonism and Aging,” D.B.Calne et al., eds., Raven Press, Tew York.Google Scholar
  13. Kish, S.J., Chang, L.J., Mirchandani, L., Shannak, K., and Hornykiewicz, 0., 1985a, Progressive supranuclear palsy: Relationship between extrapyramidal disturbances, dementia, and brain neurotransmitter markers, Ann.Neurol., 18: 530.Google Scholar
  14. Kish, S.J., Currier, R.D., Schut, L., Perry, T.L., and Morito, C.L., 1987, Brain choline acetyltransferase reduction in dominantly inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Ann. Neurol., 22: 272.Google Scholar
  15. Kish, S.J., Gilbert, J.J., Chang, L.J., Mirchandani, L., Shannak, K., and Hornykiewicz, 0., 1985b, Brain neurotransmitter abnormalities in neuronal intranuclear inclusion body disorder, Ann.Neurol., 17: 405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kish, S.J., Robitaille, Y., El-Awar, M., Deck, J.H.N., Simmons, J., Schut, L., Chang, L.-J., DiStefano, L., and Freedman, M., 1989, NonAlzheimer’s-type pattern of brain cholineacetyltransferase reduction in dominantly inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Ann.Neurol., 26: 362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kish, S.J., Shannak, K., and Hornykiewicz, 0., 1988, Uneven pattern of dopamine loss in the striatum of patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, New Engl.J.Med., 318: 876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mann, D.M.A., 1988, Neuropathologicai and neurochemical aspects ofAlzheimer’s disease, in: “Handbook of Psychopharmacology,” L.L. Iversen et al., eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. McGeer, P.L., McGeer, E.G., Suzuki, J., Dolman, C.E., and Nagai, T., 1984, Ageing, Alzheimer’s disease and the cholinergic system of the basal forebrain, Neurology, 34: 741.Google Scholar
  20. McGeer, P.L., McGeer, E.G., and Suzuki, J.S., 1977, Aging andGoogle Scholar
  21. extrapyramidal function, Arch.Neurol., 34:33.Google Scholar
  22. Perry, E.K., 1986, The cholinergic hypothesis - ten years on, Brit.Med. Bull., 42: 63.Google Scholar
  23. Perry, E.K., Perry, R.H., Blessed, G., and Tomlinson, B.E., 1977, Necropsy evidence of cerebral cholinergic deficits in senile dementia, Lancet, 1: 189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pope, A., Hess, H.H., and Levin, E., 1965, Neurochemical pathology of the cerebral cortex in presenile dementia, Trans.Am.Neurol.Assoc., 89: 15.Google Scholar
  25. Rossor, M., 1988, Neurochemical studies in dementia, in: “Handbook of Psychopharmacology,” L.L.Iversen et al., eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Wisniewski, H.M., and Rabe, A., 1986, Discrepancy between Alzheimer-type neuropathology and dementia in persons with Down’s syndrome, Ann. New York Acad.Sci., 477: 247.Google Scholar
  27. Yates, C,M., Simpson, J., Maloney, A.F.J., Gordon, A., and Reid, A.H., 1980, Alzheimer-like cholinergic deficiency in Down’s syndrome, Lancet 2: 979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yates, C.M., Fink, G., Bennie, J.G., Gordon, A., Simpson, J., and Eskay, R.L., 1985, Neurotensin immunoreactivity in post-mortem brain is increased in Down’s syndrome but not in Alzheimer-type dementia, J.Neurol.Sci., 67: 327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oleh Hornykiewicz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stephen J. Kish
    • 2
  • Ali H. Rajput
    • 3
  1. 1.Inst. of Biochemical PharmacologyUniversity of Vienna Borschkegasse 8aViennaAustria
  2. 2.Clarke Institute of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoCanada
  3. 3.Univ. Hosp.University of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations