A Presynaptic Action of Glutamate on Cone Photoreceptors

  • K. Everett
  • M. Sarantis
  • D. Attwell
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 194)


The photoreceptors of lower vertebrates are thought to use glutamate as a neurotransmitter (Miller and Schwartz, 1983). The neurotransmitter actions of glutamate in the outer retina are well documented. Glutamate gates channels in postsynaptic bipolar (Attwell et al., 1987; Miller and Slaughter, 1986; Nawy and Copenhagen, 1987), and horizontal cells (Slaughter and Miller, 1983; Ishida et al., 1984). These neurotransmitter actions of glutamate may be terminated in part by electrogenic transport of glutamate into retinal glial (Müller) cells (Brew and Attwell, 1987).


Reversal Potential Horizontal Cell Patch Pipette External Sodium Bath Perfusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Attwell, D., Mobbs, P., Tessier-Lavigne, M., and Wilson, M., 1987, Neurotransmitter-induced currents in retinal bipolar cells of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, J.Physiol., 387:125.Google Scholar
  2. Attwell, D., Werblin, F. S., and Wilson, M., 1982, The properties of single cones isolated from the tiger salamander retina, J. Physiol., 328:259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bader, C. R., Macleish, P. R., and Schwartz, E. A., 1979, A voltage-clamp study of the light response in solitary rods of the turtle, J. Physiol., 296:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbour, B., Brew, H., and Attwell, D., 1988, Electrogenic glutamate uptake in glial cells is activated by intracellular potassium, Nature, 335:433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brew, H., and Attwell, D., 1987, Electrogenic glutamate uptake is a major current carrier in the membrane of axolotl retinal glial cells, Nature, 327:707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cervetto, L., and Macnichol, E. F., 1972, Inactivation of horizontal cells in turtle retina by glutamate and aspartate, Science, 178:767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Collins, G. G. S., Anson, J., and Surtees, L., 1982, Presynaptic kainate and N-methyl-Daspartate receptors regulate excitatory amino acid release in the olfactory cortex, Brain Res., 265:157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cull-Candy, S. G., 1976, Two types of extrajunctional L-glutamate receptors in locust muscle fibres, J. Physiol., 255:449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Errington, M. L., Lynch, M. A., and Bliss, T. V. P., 1987, Long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus: Induction and increased glutamate release are blocked by D(−)aminophosphonovalerate, Neuroscience, 20:279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fenwick, E. M., Marty, A., and Neher, E., 1982, A patch-clamp study of bovine chromaffin cells and of their sensitivity to acetylcholine, J. Physiol., 331:577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ishida, A. T., Kaneko, A., and Tachibana, M., 1984, Responses of solitary retinal horizontal cells from Carassius auratus to L-glutamate and related amino acids, J. Physiol., 348:255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaneko, A., and Tachibana, M., 1986, Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on isolated cone photoreceptors of the turtle retina, J. Physiol., 373:443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaneko, A., and Tachibana, M., 1987, Effects of L-glutamate on isolated turtle photoreceptors, ARVO Abstracts, Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci.(Suppl)., 28:50.Google Scholar
  14. Lasansky, A., 1973, Organization of the outer synaptic layer in the retina of the larval tiger salamander, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., B, 265:471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mayer, M., and Westbrook, G. L., 1985, The action of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid on mouse spinal neurones in culture, J. Physiol., 361:65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Miller, A. M., and Schwartz, E. A., 1983, Evidence for the identification of synaptic transmitters released by photoreceptors of the toad retina, J.Physiol., 334:325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Miller, R. F., and Slaughter, M. M., 1986, Excitatory amino acid receptors of the retina: diversity of subtypes and conductance mechanisms, Trends Neurosci., 9:211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Murakami, M., Ohtsu, K., and Ohtsuka, T., 1972, Effects of chemicals on receptors and horizontal cells in the retina, J.Physiol., 227:899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Nawy, S., and Copenhagen, D., 1987, Multiple classes of glutamate receptors on depolarizing bipolar cells in retina, Nature, 325:56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Newman, E., 1985, Voltage-dependent calcium and potassium channels in retinal glial cells, Nature, 317:809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sarantis, M., Everett, K., and Attwell, D., 1988, A presynaptic action of glutamate at the cone output synapse, Nature, 332:451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shiells, R. A., Falk, G., and Naghshineh, S., 1981, Action of glutamate and aspartate analogues on rod horizontal and bipolar cells, Nature, 294:592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Slaughter, M. M., and Miller, R. F., 1983, The role of excitatory amino acid transmitters in the mudpuppy retina: An analysis with kainic acid and N-methyl aspartate, J. Neurosci., 3:1701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Starke, K., 1981, Presynaptic receptors, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 21:7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tachibana, M., and Kaneko, A., 1988, L-glutamate-induced depolarization in solitary photoreceptors: A process that may contribute to the interaction between photoreceptors in situ, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 85:5315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Thieffrey, M., and Bruner, J., 1978, Direct evidence for a presynaptic action of glutamate at a crayfish neuromuscular junction, Brain Res., 156:402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Thieffrey, M., Bruner, J., and Personne, P., 1979, The presynaptic action of L-glutamate at the crayfish neuromuscular junction, J. Physiol., Paris, 75:635.Google Scholar
  28. White, R. D., and Neal, M. J., 1976, The uptake of L-glutamate by the retina, Brain Res., 111:79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wu, S. M., 1986, Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on cones and bipolar cells of the tiger salamander retina, Brain Res., 365:70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Everett
    • 1
  • M. Sarantis
    • 1
  • D. Attwell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity College LondonEngland

Personalised recommendations