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Cigarette Smoking and Extracranial Carotid Atherosclerosis

  • Grethe S. Tell
  • George Howard
  • Gregory W. Evans
  • Michael L. Smith
  • William M. McKinney
  • James F. Toole
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 273)

Abstract

Chronic cigarette smoking has been associated with increased risk for atherosclerotic diseases of extracranial carotid arteries in several studies. Angiography was the first method used to image in vivo stenosis — narrowing of the arterial lumen — both in the intracranial and extracranial carotid circulation. Stenosis is usually expressed as percent narrowing of the lumen diameter, and is often used as a measure of arterial disease caused by atherosclerotic plaque lesions. Although angiography has been an important tool studying the relation between various risk factors and atherosclerotic disease, the invasive nature of the procedure limits its application to symptomatic subjects and raises ethical concerns for studies in healthy volunteers.

Keywords

Cigarette Smoking Current Smoker Carotid Stenosis Carotid Plaque Carotid Atherosclerosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grethe S. Tell
    • 1
  • George Howard
    • 1
  • Gregory W. Evans
    • 1
  • Michael L. Smith
    • 1
  • William M. McKinney
    • 2
  • James F. Toole
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Public Health SciencesBowman Gray School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyBowman Gray School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA

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