Advertisement

Cigarette Smoking Causes Acute Changes in Arterial Wall Mechanics and the Pattern of Arterial Blood Flow in Healthy Subjects: Possible Insight into Mechanisms of Atherogenesis

  • Colin G. Caro
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 273)

Abstract

Cigarette smoking is widely believed to increase the extent and severity of atherosclerosis, but the underlying mechanisms have not been delineated (1–5). There are changes in the plasma lipids and the rheology of the blood in smokers, but these are unable fully to account for atherosclerosis, in particular its focal distribution in the circulation. Atherosclerosis principally affects the intima of thick-walled arteries and within these vessels’ regions of branching and curvature. There is evidence consistent with the view that the mass transport properties of the walls of blood vessels and the blood flow pattern determine this distribution. We consider the mechanisms and report acute changes we have found in arterial wall mechanics and arterial blood flow in healthy human subjects after smoking cigarettes. These changes may help explain the association between smoking and other factors and atherosclerosis.

Keywords

Wall Shear Stress Pulsatility Index Superficial Femoral Artery Blood Velocity Arterial Blood Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Su, C. Actions of nicotine and smoking on circulation. Pharmacol. Ther. 17:129–141 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Surgeon-General. The health consequences of smoking: Cardiovascular disease. US Dept. of Health and Human Services Publication DHHS(PHS), 84-50204 (1983).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Auerbach, O., Hammond, E.C., Garfinkel, L. Smoking in relation to atherosclerosis of the coronary artery. N. Engl. J. Med. 273:775–779 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garrison, R. J., Kannel, W.B., Feinleib, M., Castelli, W.P., McNamara, P.M., Padgett, S.J. Cigarette smoking and HDL cholesterol. The Framingham offspring study. Atherosclerosis 30:17–25 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holme, I., Enger, S.C., Helgeland, A. Risk factors and raised atherosclerotic lesions in coronary and cerebral arteries: Statistical analysis from the Oslo study. Arteriosclerosis 1:250–256 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Caro, C.G., Lever, M.J., Laver-Rudich, Z. Net albumin transport across the wall of the rabbit common carotid artery perfused in situ. Atherosclerosis 37:497–511 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith, E.B., Staples, E.H. Intimal and medial plasma protein concentrations and endothelial function. Atherosclerosis 41:295–308 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fry, D.L. Mathematical models of arterial transmural transport. Am. J. Physiol. 248:H240–263 (1985).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Caro, C.G., Jay, M., Lever, M.J. Labelled albumin uptake by rabbit aorta, pulmonary artery and common carotid artery. J. Physiol. 371:85P (1985).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caro, C.G., Lever, M.J. Effect of vasoactive agents and applied stress on the albumin space of excised rabbit carotid arteries. Atherosclerosis 46:137–146 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Caro, C.G., Lever, M.J. Baldwin, A., Tedgui, A. Influence of convection and vasoactive agents on the mass transport properties of the arterial wall. In: Schettler, G., Nerem, R.M., Schmid-Schonbein, H., Morl, H., Diehm, C, (eds.) “Fluid dynamics as a localizing factors for atherosclerosis.” Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 129–134 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lever, M.J. Effects of smooth muscle tone on interstitial transport. Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 4:294 (1985).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Caro, C.G. and Parker, K.H. The effect of haemodynamic factors on the arterial wall. In: Atherosclerosis: Biology and Clinical Science. A.G. Olsson (Ed) Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh (1987).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Caro, C.G., Fitz-Gerald, J.M. Schroter, R.C Atheroma and arterial wall shear. Observation, correlation and proposal of a shear dependent mass transfer mechanism for atherogenesis. Proc. R. Soc. London B. 177:109–159 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Friedman, M.H., Hutchins, G.M. Bargeron, C.B., Deters, O.J., Mark. F.F. Correlation between intimal thickness and fluid shear in human arteries. Atherosclerosis 39:425–436 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Svindland, A.D., Walloe, L. Localization of early atherosclerotic lesions in carotid and coronary bifurcations in humans — a bifurcation of the high shear stress hypothesis. In: Schettler, G., Nerem, R.M., Schmid-Schonbein H., Morl, H., Diehm, C, (eds.) “Fluid dynamics as a localizing factor for atherosclerosis.” Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 212–215 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Giddens, D.P., Zarins, C.K., Glagov, S., Bharadvaj, B.K., Ku, D.N. Flow and atherogenesis in the human carotid bifurcation. In: Schettler, G., Nerem, R.M., Schmid-Schonbein, H., Morl, H., Diehm, C (eds.) “Fluid dynamics as a localizing factor for atherosclerosis, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 38–45 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sabbah, H.N., Khaja, F., Grymer, J.F., Hawkins, E.T., Stein, P.D. Blood velocity in the right coronary artery: relation to the distribution of atherosclerotic lesions. Am. J. Cardiol. 53:1008–12 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sakata, N., Joshita, T., Ooneda, G. Topographical study on arteriosclerotic lesions at the bifurcations of human cerebral arteries. Heart Vessels 1:70–73 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yoshida, Y., Yamaguchi, T., Caro, C.G., Glagov, S. and Nerem, R.M. (eds) “Role of blood flow in atherogenesis, Springer-Verlag, Tokyo (1987).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fry, D.L., Responses of the arterial wall to certain physical factors. In: Porter, R., Knight, J. “Atherogenesis: Initiating factors.” Ciba Foundation Symposium 12 (new series). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 93–125 (1973).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spence, J.D., Effect of antihypertensive drugs and blood velocity. In: Schettler, G., Nerem, R.M. Schmid-Schonbein, H., Morl, H. Diehm, C (eds.) “Fluid dynamics as a localizing factor for atherosclerosis. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 141–144 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Caro, C.G., Lever, M.J., Parker, K.H. and Fish, P.J. Effect of cigarette smoking on the pattern of arterial blood flow: possible insight into mechanisms underlying the development of arteriosclerosis. The Lancet, 11–13 (July 4, 1987).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lusby, R.N. Bauminger, B., Woodcock, J.P. Skidmore, R., Baird, R.N. Cigarette smoking: Acute main and small vessel haemodynamics responses in patients with arterial disease. Am. J. Surg. 142:169–173 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reneman, R.S., Van Merode, T., Hick, P., Hoeks, A.P.G. Flow velocity patterns in and distensibility of the carotid artery bulb in subjects of various ages. Circulation 71:500–509 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Batten, J.R., Nerem, R.M. Model study of flow in curved and planar arterial bifurcations. Cardiovasc. Res. 16:178–186 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lutz, R.J., Hsu, L., Menawat, A., Zrubek, J., Edwards, K.H. Comparison of steady and pulsatile flow in a double branching arterial model. Biomechanics 16:753–766 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Caro, C.G., Fish, P.J., Parker, K.H., Watkins, N., Lever, M.J. and Light, H. Effects of vasoactive agents on arterial flow pattern —relevance to atheroma. In: “Biology of the Arterial Wall.” Satellite Meeting of 8th Int. Symposium on Atherosclerosis, Siena, 199–208 (1988).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Caro, C.G., Fish, P.J., Goss, D.E. Effect of isosorbide dinitrate on arterial haemodynamics in man. J. Physiol. 365:93P (1985).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mahler, F., Brunner, H.H., Bollinger, A., Casty, M., Anliker, M. Changes in phasic femoral artery flow induced by various stimuli: A study with percutaneous pulsed Doppler ultrasound. Cardiovasc. Res. 11:454–60 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dewey, C.F. Effects of fluid flow on living vascular cells. J. Biomech. Eng. 106:31–35 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Frangos, J.A., Eskin, S.G., McIntyre, L.V., Ives, C.L. Flow effects on prostacyclin production by cultured human endothelial cells. Science 227:1477–79 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vanhoutte, P.M. The end of the quest? Nature 327:459–60 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lansman, J.B. Going with the flow. Nature 331:481–482 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sprague, E.A., Steinbeck, B.L., Nerem, R.M. and Schwartz, C.J. Influence of a steady-state fluid-imposed wall shear stress on the binding, internalization and degradation of low-density lipoprotein by cultured arterial endothelium. Circulation 26, 648–656 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fry, D.L. Certain histological and chemical responses of the vascular interface to acutely induced mechanical stress in the aorta of the dog. Circulation Res. 24:93–108 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Caro, C.G., Nerem, R.M. Transport of 14C-4-cholesterol between serum and wall in perfused dog-common carotid artery. Circulation Res. 32: 189–205 (1973).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Caro, C.G., Lever, M.J., Tarbeil, J.M. Effect of luminal flow rate on transmural fluid flux in the perfused rabbit common carotid artery. J. Physiol. 365:92P (1985).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Karino, T., Motomiya, M., Goldsmith, H.L. Flow patterns in model and natural branching vessels. In: Schettler, G., Nerem, R.M. Schmid-Schonbein H., Morl, H., Diehm, C (eds.) “Fluid dynamics as a localizing factor for atherosclerosis.” Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 60–70 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colin G. Caro
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Biological and Medical SystemsImperial College of Science, Technology and MedicineLondonUK

Personalised recommendations