A vast number of halogenated compounds are present in the biosphere. While most of these have resulted from the work of synthetic chemists, a large number are naturally occurring—products of nature’s halogenation processes. The majority of these naturally occurring halogenated compounds are produced by haloperoxidases, a group of enzymes widely distributed in nature that are capable of halogenating a broad spectrum of organic substrates. A comprehensive review of recent research involved with isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of naturally occurring halogenated compounds, now an active area of natural products chemistry, is beyond the scope of this chapter. Recent reviews are available and will be cited (e.g., Neidleman and Geigert, 1986, 1987). While examples of halometabolites produced by various species will be given—particularly compounds that have useful medical applications—the emphasis in this chapter will be placed on the biochemical processes that produce the halometabolites. Thus, the mechanism of halogenation by haloperoxidases will be reviewed, and specific examples of haloperoxidases will be given, including recently identified vanadium-containing nonheme haloperoxidases.
KeywordsMarine Organism Thyroid Peroxidase Marine Natural Product Halogenating Species Hypohalous Acid
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