Advertisement

A Virus-Associated Immunopathological Theory of Schizophrenia

  • Royce W. WaltripII
  • Donald R. Carrigan
  • Robert W. Buchanan
  • William T. CarpenterJr.

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome which is increasingly considered to be a neurological disease with behavioral symptoms that primarily manifest as dysfunction of frontal and limbic brain areas. Hypotheses of the etiology or etiologies of schizophrenia have tended to be limited to intrinsic central nervous system (CNS) processes, such as neurotransmitter dysregulation or neuroanatomical models. These models have a correspondingly limited predictive validity. An alternate and potentially more useful perspective of the disease would be one that takes into account its pleomorphic nature. Schizophrenia has a broad spectrum of associated findings suggesting involvement of developmental processes and a pathophysiology that may be systemic in nature. Viral hypotheses have been one way that the issue of pleomorphism has been addressed.

Keywords

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Schizophrenic Patient Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Measle Virus Viral Reactivation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abb, J., 1985, Serum interferon and clinical manifestations of infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type III, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 174: 205–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abb, J., Abb, H., and Deinhardt, F., 1984, Age-related decline of human interferon alpha and interferon gamma production, Blut 48: 285–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams, E, Quesada, J. R., and Gutterman, J. U., 1984, Neuropsychiatric manifestations of human leukocyte interferon therapy in patients with cancer, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 252: 938–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahokas, A., Rimon, R., Koskiniemi, M., Vaheri, A., Julkunen, I., and Sarna, S., 1987, Viral antibodies and interferon in acute psychiatric disorders, J. Clin. Psychiatry 48: 194–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Albrecht, P., Boone, E., Torrey, E. F., Hicks, J. T., and Daniel, N., 1980b, Raised cytomegalovirus-Google Scholar
  6. antibody level in cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients, Lancet 2:769–772.Google Scholar
  7. Altshuler, L. L., Conrad, A., Kovelman, J. A., and Scheibel, A., 1987, Hippocampal pyramidal cell orientation in schizophrenia, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 44: 1094–1098.Google Scholar
  8. Arnheiter, E. R. H., and Haller, O., 1987. Microinjection of an antibody to the interferon induced Mx protein inhibits the establishment of an antiviral state, Experientia 43: 690.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, H. F., Bloxham, C., Crow, T. J., Davies, H., Ferrier, I. N., Johnstone, E. C., Parry, R. P., Ridley, R. M., Taylor, G. R., and Tyrrell, D. A. J., 1983, The viral hypothesis of schizophrenia: Some experimental approaches, in: Research on the Viral Hypothesis of Mental Disorders, ( P. V. Morozov, ed.), Karger, Basel, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  10. Baringer, J. R., 1975, Herpes simplex virus infection of nervous tissue in animals and man, Prog. Med. Virol. 20: 1–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barouki, F. M., Witter, E R., Griffin, D. E., Nadler, P. I., Woods, A., Wood, D. L., and Lietman, P. S., 1987, Time course of interferon levels, antiviral state, 2’95’-oligoadenylate synthetase and side effects in healthy men, J. Interferon Res. 7: 29–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartrop, R. W, Luckhurst, E., Lazarus, L., Kiloh, L. G., and Penny, R., 1977, Depressed lymphocyte function after bereavement, Lancet 1: 834–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bever, C. T., McFarlin, D. E., and Levy, H. B., 1985, A comparison of interferon responses to poly ICLC in males and females, J. Interferon Res. 5: 423–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bever, C. T., McFarland, H. F., McFarlin, D. E., and Levy, H. B., 1988, The kinetics of interferon induction by poly ICLC in humans, J. Interferon Res. 8: 419–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blalock, J. E., and Smith, E. M., 1980, Human leukocyte interferon: Structural and biological relatedness to adrenocorticotropic hormone and endorphins, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 5972–5974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blalock, J. E., and Smith, E. M., 1981, Human leukocyte interferon (HuIFN-a): Potent endorphin-like opioid activity, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 101: 472–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bogerts, B., Meertz, E., and Schonfeldt-Bausch, R., 1985, Basal ganglia and limbic system pathology in schizophrenia, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 42: 784–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Borden, E. C., and Murphy, F. A., 1971, The interferon refractory state: In vivo and in vitro studies of its mechanism, J. Immunol. 106: 134–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Borden, E. C., Prochowinik, E. V., and Carter, W. A., 1975, The interferon refractory state: II.Google Scholar
  20. Biological characterization of a refractoriness-inducing protein, J. Immunol. 114:752–756.Google Scholar
  21. Bottomley, J. M., and Toy, J. L., 1985, Clinical side effects and toxicities of interferon, in: Interferon 4: In Vivo and Clinical Studies, ( N. B. Finter and R. K. Oldham, eds.), Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp. 155–180.Google Scholar
  22. Brahic, M., Smith, R. A., Gibbs, C. J., Jr., Garruto, R. M., Tourtellotte, W. W., and Cash, E., 1985, Detection of picornavirus sequences in nervous tissue of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and control patients, Ann. Neurol. 18: 337–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Breder, C. D., Dinarello, C. A., and Saper, C. B., 1988, Interleukin-1 immunoreactive innervation of the human hypothalamus, Science 240: 321–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Buchanan, C. E., and Jones, M. B., 1969, A within family study of schizophrenia and a visible subpapillary plexus in the nailfold, Schizophrenia 1: 61–75.Google Scholar
  25. Budka, H., Costanzi, G., Cristina, S., Lechi, A., Parravicini, C., Trabattoni, R., and Vago, L., 1987, Brain pathology induced by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A histological, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopical study of 100 autopsy cases, Acta Neuropathol. 75: 185–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Buhrich, N., Cooper, D. A., and Freed, E., 1988, HIV infection associated with symptoms indistinguishable from functional psychosis, Br. J. Psychiatry 152: 649–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Buimovici-Klein, E., Lange, M., Klein, R. J., Grieco, M. H., and Cooper, L. Z., 1986, Long-term follow-up of serum-interferon and its acid-stability in a group of homosexual men, AIDS Res. 2 (2): 99–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Calvet, M., and Gressor, I., 1979, Interferon enhances the excitability of cultured neurones, Nature 278: 558–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Capobianchi, M. R., DeMarco, F., DiMarco, P., and Dianzani, F., 1988, Acid-labile human interferon alpha production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by HIV-infected cells, Arch. Virol. 99: 9–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carpenter, W T., 1987, Approaches to knowledge and understanding of schizophrenia, Schiz. Bull. 13: 1–8.Google Scholar
  31. Carpenter, W. T., and Buchanan, R. W, 1989, Domains of psychopathology relevant to the study of etiology and treatment of schizophrenia, in: Schizophrenia: Scientific Progress (S. C. Schultz, and C. T. Tamminga, eds.), Oxford University Press, London, pp. 13–23.Google Scholar
  32. Carpenter, W. T., and Kirkpatrick, B., 1989, The heterogeneity of longterm course schizophrenia: Implications for future research, Schiz. Bull. 14: 645–652.Google Scholar
  33. Carpenter, W. T., Heinrichs, D. W, and Hanlon, T. E., 1987, A comparative trial of pharmacologic strategies in schizophrenia, Am. J. Psychiatry 144: 1466–1470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Carpenter, W. T., Heinrichs, D. W, and Wagman, A. M. I., 1988, Deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia: The concept, Am. J. Psychiatry 145: 578–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Carter, M., and Watts, C. A. H., 1971, Possible biological advantages among schizophrenics’ relatives, Br. J. Psychiatry 118: 453–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chany, C., Duc-Goiran, P., Robert-Galliot, B., Chudzio, T., and Lebon, P., 1982, Study of human amniotic interferon, in: Interferons ( T. C. Merigan and R. M. Friedman, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 241–248.Google Scholar
  37. Ciompi, L., 1980, Catamnestic long-term study on the course of life and aging of schizophrenics, Schiz. Bull. 6: 606–618.Google Scholar
  38. Clemens, M. J., and McNurlan, M. A., 1985, Regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation by interferons, Biochem. J. 226: 345–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Conrad, A. J., and Scheibel, A. B., 1987, Schizophrenia and the hippocampus: The embryological hypothesis extended, Schiz. Bull. 13: 577–587.Google Scholar
  40. Cools, A. R., Wiegant, V. M., and Gispen, W. H., 1978, Distinct dopaminergic systems in ACTH-induced grooming, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 50: 265–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Creasey, A. A., Vitt, C. R., Herst, C., O’Rourke, E., Doyle, L., Innis, M. A., McCabe, P. C., McCormick, F., Milley, R., Lin, L. S., and White, T. J., 1988, Functional properties of proteins coded by three human a-interferon genes and a pseudogene, Cancer Res. 48: 1763–1770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Crow, T. J., 1984, A re-evaluation of the viral hypothesis: Is psychosis the result of retroviral integration at a site close to the cerebral dominance gene? Br. J. Psychiatry 145: 243–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Crow, T. J., 1986, The continuum of psychosis and its implication for the structure of the gene, Br. J. Psychiatry 149: 419–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Crow, T. J., 1987a, A pseudoautosomal locus for psychosis?Lancet 2: 1532.Google Scholar
  45. Crow, T. J., 1987b, Genes and viruses in schizophrenia: The retrovirus transposon hypothesis, in: Viruses, Immunity, and Mental Disorders ( E. Kurstak, Z. J. Lipowski, and P. V. Morozov, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 125–134.Google Scholar
  46. Crow, T. J., Taylor, G. R., and Tyrrell, D. A. J., 1986,1ivo syndromes in schizophrenia and the viral hypothesis, Prog. Brain Res. 65: 17–27.Google Scholar
  47. Dafny, N., 1983, Modification of morphine withdrawal by interferon, Life Sciences 32: 303–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dafny, N., Prieto-Gomez, B., and Reyes-Vazquez, C., 1985, Does the immune system communicate with the central nervous system? Interferon modifies central nervous activity, J. Neuroimmunol. 9: 1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Day, R., 1981, Life events and schizophrenia: The “triggering” hypothesis, Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 64: 97–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. DeLisi, L. E., 1984, Is immune dysfunction associated with schizophrenia? A review of the data, Psychopharmacol. Bull. 20: 509–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. DeLisi, L. E., and Crow, T. J., 1986, Is schizophrenia a viral or immunologic disorder? Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 9: 115–132.Google Scholar
  52. Dinarello, C. A., 1985, An update on human interleukin-1: From molecular biology to clinical relevance, J. Clin. Immunol. 5: 287–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dorfman, L. J., 1978, Cytomegalic inclusion disease, in: Infections of the Nervous System ( P. E. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn, eds.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 209–233.Google Scholar
  54. Drayer, B. P., and Barrett, L., 1984, Magnetic resonance imaging and CT scanning in multiple sclerosis, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 436: 294–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dunnick, J. K., and Galasso, G. J., 1980, Update on clinical trials with exogenous interferon, J. Infect. Dis. 142: 293–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Elder, G. A., and Sever, J. L., 1988, Neurologic disorders associated with AIDS retroviral infection, Rev. Infect. Dis. 10: 286–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Engelhard, D., Marks, M. I., and Good, R. A., 1986, Infections in bone marrow transplant recipients, J. Pediatr. 108: 335–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Epstein, C. J., and Epstein, L. B., 1982, Genetic control of the response to interferon, Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 41: 324–331.Google Scholar
  59. Epstein, C. J., McManus, N. H., Epstein, L. B., Branaca, A. A., D’Alessandro, S. B., and Baglione, C., 1982, Evidence that the gene product of the human chromosome 21 locus, IFRC, is the interferon-alpha receptor, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 107: 1060–1066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Epstein, L. B., and Epstein, C. J., 1976, Localization of the gene AVG for the antiviral expression of immune and classical interferon to the distal portion of the long arm of chromosome 21, J. Infect. Dis. 133 (Suppl): A56 — A62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Epstein, L. B., and Epstein, C. J., 1980, T lymphocyte function and sensitivity to interferon in trisomy 21, Cell Immunol. 51: 303–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Falloon, I. R. H., 1986, Family stress and schizophrenia, Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 9: 165–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Falloon, I. R. H., Marshall, G. N., Boyd, J. L., Razani, J., and Wood-Severio, C., 1983, Relapse in schizophrenia: A review of the concept and its definitions, Psycho!. Med. 13: 469–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fang, T. C., 1950, The third interdigital patterns on the palms of the general British population, mongoloid and non-mongoloid mental defectives, J. Ment. Sci. 96: 780–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Farkkila, M., livanainen, M., Roine, R., Bergstrom, L., Laaksonen, R., Niemi, M. L., and Cantell, K., 1984, Neurotoxic and other side effects of high-dose interferon in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Acta Neurol. Scand. 69: 42–46.Google Scholar
  66. Feinberg, I., 1982/3, Schizophrenia: Caused by a fault in programmed synaptic elimination during adolescence? J. Psychiatr. Res. 17: 319–334.Google Scholar
  67. Firestone, P., Peters, S., and Rivier, M., 1978, Minor physical anomalies in hyperactive, retarded and normal children and their families, Child Psycho!. Psychiatry 19: 155–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fisher, P. B., Mufson, R. A., and Weinstein, I. B., 1981, Interferon inhibits melanogenesis in B-16 mouse melanoma cells, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 100: 823–830.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Fisher, P. B., Miranda, A. F., Babiss, L. E., Pestka, S., and Weinstein, I. B., 1983, Opposing effects of interferon produced in bacteria and of tumor promoters on myogenesis in human myoblast cultures, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 2961–2965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Fraser, N. W, Lawrence, W. C., Wroblewska, Z., Gilden, D. H., and Koprowski, H., 1981, Herpes simplex type 1 DNA in human brain tissue, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 6461–6465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Furuta, M., Akashi, K., Nakamura, Y., Matsumoto, K., Yamaguchi, H., Takamatsu, S., and Shimizu, T., 1987, 2’, 5’-oligoadenylate synthetase activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a clinical marker in interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis B, J. Interferon Res. 7: 111–119.Google Scholar
  72. Gajdusek, D. C., 1985, Unconventional viruses causing subacute spongiform encephalopathies, in: Virology ( B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, R. M. Chanock, J. L. Melnick, B. Roizman, and R. E. Shope, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 1519–1557.Google Scholar
  73. Gattaz, W. F., Kohlmeyer, K., and Gasser, T., 1987, Structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, in: Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia ( H. Hafner, W. F Gattaz, and W. Janzarik, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 250–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Giulian D., Baker, T. J., Shih, L. N., and Lachman, L. B., 1986, Interleukin 1 of the central nervous system is produced by ameboid microglia, J. Exp. Med. 164: 594–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Glaser, R., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Speicher, C. E., and Holliday, J. E., 1985, Stress, loneliness, and changes in herpesvirus latency, J. Behay. Med. 8: 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Goldberg, S. C., 1985, Negative and deficit symptoms do respond to neuroleptics, Schiz. Bull. 11: 453–456.Google Scholar
  77. Goldman-Rakic, P. S., Isseroff, A., Schwartz, M. L., and Bugbee, N. N., 1983, The neurobiology of cognitive development, in: Handbook of Child Psychology, Biology and Infancy Development ( P. Mussen, ed.), Wiley, New York, pp. 281–344.Google Scholar
  78. Goldmeier, D., and Johnson, A., 1982, Does psychiatric illness affect the recurrence rate of genital herpes? Br. J. Vener. Dis. 58: 40–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gotlieb-Stematsky, T., Floru, S., Becker, D., Kritchman, E., and Leventon-Kriss, S., 1987, Antibody and cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex and Epstein-Barr viruses in psychotic patients, in: Viruses, Immunity, and Mental Disorders ( E. Kurstak, Z. J. Lipowski, and P. V. Morozov, eds.), Plenum Press, New york, pp. 173–177.Google Scholar
  80. Greene, J. J., Dyer, R. H., Yang, L. C., and Ts’o, P. O. P., 1984, Developmentally regulated expression of the interferon system during Syrian hamster embryogenesis, J. Interferon Res. 4: 517–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gresser, I., Tbvey, M. G., Bandu, M. T., Maury, C., and Brouty-Boye, D., 1976, Role of interferon in the pathogenesis of virus disease in mice as demonstrated by the use of anti-interferon serum: I. Rapid evolution of encephalomyocarditis virus infection, J. Exp. Med. 144: 1305–1323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gualtieri, C. T., Adams, A., Shen, C. D., and Loiselle, D., 1982, Minor physical anomalies in alcoholic and schizophrenic adults and hyperactive and autistic children, Am. J. Psychiatry 139: 640–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Guy, J. D., Majorski, L. V., Wallace, C. J., and Guy, M. P., 1983, The incidence of minor physical anomalies in adult male schizophrenics, Schiz. Bull. 9: 571–582.Google Scholar
  84. Haase, A. T., Ventura, P., Gibbs, C. J., and Tourtellotte, W. W, 1981, Measles virus nucleotide sequences: Detection by hybridization in situ, Science 212: 672–675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Haase, A. T., Stowring, L., Ventura, P., Burks, J., Ebers, G., Tourtellotte, W., and Warren K., 1984, Detection by hybridization of viral infection of the human central nervous system, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 436: 103–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Halevie-Goldman, B. D., Potkin, S. G., and Poyourow, P., 1987, AIDS-related complex presenting as psychosis, Am. J. Psychiatry 144: 964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Haller, O., Arnheiter, H., Lindenmann, J., and Gresser, I., 1980, Host gene influences sensitivity to interferon action selectively for influenza virus, Nature 283: 660–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Haller, O., Arnheiter, H., Gresser, I., and Lindenmann, J., 1981, Virus-specific interferon action: Protection of newborn Mx carriers against lethal infection with influenza virus, J. Exp. Med. 154: 199–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hammer, M., and Zubin, J., 1968, Evolution, culture, and psychopathology, J. Gen. Psychol. 78: 151–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hanninen, P., Arstila, P., Lang, H., Salmi, A., and Panelius, M., 1980, Involvement of the central nervous system in acute, uncomplicated measles virus infection, J. Clin. Microbiol. 11: 610–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hanshaw, J. B., 1971, Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: A fifteen year perspective, J. Infect. Dis. 123: 555–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Haracz, J. L., 1984, Neural plasticity hypothesis of schizophrenia, Neurosci. Biobehay. Rev. 8: 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Haracz, J. L., 1985, Neural plasticity in schizophrenia, Schiz. Bull. 11: 191–229.Google Scholar
  94. Hendrick, I., 1928, Encephalitis lethargica and the interpretation of mental disease, Am. J. Psychiatry 7: 989–1014.Google Scholar
  95. Higashino, S. M., and Moss, A. J., 1967, Capillary microscopy: Abnormalities in cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, and mongolism, Am. J. Dis. Child. 113: 439–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Huber, G., Gross, G., Schuttler, R., and Linz, M., 1980, Longitudinal studies of schizophrenic patients, Schiz. Bull. 6: 592–605.Google Scholar
  97. Huttenlocher, P. R., 1979, Synaptic density in human frontal cortex—Developmental changes and effects of aging, Brain Res. 163: 195–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Huxley, J., Mayr, E., Osmond, H., and Hoffer, A., 1964, Schizophrenia as a genetic morphism, Nature 204: 220–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Iivanainen, M., Laaksonen, R., Niemi, M. L., Farkkila, M., Bergstrom, L., Mattson, K., Niiranen, A., and Cantell, K., 1985, Memory and psychomotor impairment following high-dose interferon treatment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Acta Neurol. Scand. 72: 475–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Inglot, A. D., 1983, The hormonal concept of interferon, Arch. Virol. 76: 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Jarvik, L. F., and Chadwick, S. B., 1973, Schizophrenia and survival, in: Psychopathology: Contributions from the Social, Behavioral, and Biological Sciences ( M. Hammer, K. Salzinger, and S. Sutton, eds.), Wiley, New York, pp. 57–73.Google Scholar
  102. Johnson, K. P., and Carrigan, D. R., 1981, Neurologic diseases caused by measles virus, Neurology International Congress Series No. 568: 404–415.Google Scholar
  103. Johnson, R. T., 1982, Viral Infections of the Nervous System, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Jordan, M. C., 1983, Latent infection and the elusive cytomegalovirus, Rev. Infect. Dis. 5: 205–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kasl, S. V., Evans, A. S., and Niederman, J. C., 1979, Psychosocial risk factors in the development of infectious mononucleosis, Psychosom. Med. 41: 445–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kaufmann, C. A., Weinberger, D. R., Yolken, R. H., Torrey, E. F., and Potkin, S. G., 1983, Viruses and schizophrenia, Lancet 2: 1136–1137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Keith, S. J., and Matthews, S. M., eds., 1988, Issue theme: A national plan for schizophrenia research, Schiz. Bull. 14.Google Scholar
  108. Kendell, R. E., 1975, The Role of Diagnosis in Psychiatry, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  109. King, D. J., Cooper, S. J., Earle, J. A. P., Martin, S. J., McFerran, N. V., Rima, B. K., and Wisdom, G. B., 1985a, A survey of serum antibodies to eight common viruses in psychiatric patients, Br. J. Psychiatry 147: 137–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. King, D. J., Cooper, S. J., Earle, J. A. P., Martin, S. J., McFerran, N. V., and Wisdom, G. B., 1985b, Serum and CSF antibody titres to seven common viruses in schizophrenic patients, Br. J. Psychiatry 147: 145–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Klein, R. J., 1982, The pathogenesis of acute, latent and recurrent herpes simplex virus infections, Arch. Virol. 72: 143–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kovelman, J. A., and Scheibel, A. B., 1986, A neurohistological correlate of schizophrenia, Biol. Psychiatry 19: 1601–1621.Google Scholar
  113. Kraepelin, E., 1919, Dementia Praecox and Paraphrenia, Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  114. Larsson, I., Landstrom, L., Lamer, E., Lundgren, E., Miorner, H., and Strannegard, O., 1978, Interferon production in glia and glioma cell lines, Infect. Immun. 22: 786–789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lebon, P., Girard, S., Thepot, F., and Chany, C., 1982, The presence of alpha-interferon in human amniotic fluid, J. Gen. Virol. 59: 393–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Leff, J., Kuipers, L., Berkowitz, R., Eberlein-Vries, R., and Sturgeon, D., 1982, A controlled trial of social intervention in the families of schizophrenic patients, Br. J. Psychiatry 141: 121–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Lewine, R. R. J., 1981, Sex differences in schizophrenia: Timing or subtypes? Psychol. Bull. 90: 432–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Libikova, H., Stancek, D., Wiedermann, V., Hasto, J., and Breier, S., 1977, Psychopharmaca and electroconvulsive therapy in relation to viral antibodies and interferon. Experimental and clinical study, Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. 25: 641–649.Google Scholar
  119. Libikova, H., Breier, S., Kocisova, M., Pagady, J., Stunzner, D., and Ujhazyova, D., 1979, Assay of interferon and viral antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid in clinical neurology and psychiatry, Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 38: 879–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Lok, A. S. F, Wu, P., Lai, C., and Leung, E. K. Y., 1988, Long-term follow-up in a randomised controlled trial of recombinant alpha2-interferon in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B infection, Lancet 2: 298–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lorenzo, P., Portoles, A., Jr., Beneit, J. V, Ronda, E., and Portoles, A., 1987, Physical dependence to morphine diminishes the interferon response in mice, Immunopharmacology 14: 93–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. McCowan, P. K., and Cook, L. C., 1928, The mental aspect of chronic epidemic encephalitis, Lancet 1:1316–1320.Google Scholar
  123. McDonald, E. M., Mann, A. H., and Thomas, H. C., 1987, Interferons as mediators of psychiatric morbidity: An investigation in a trial of recombinant a-interferon in hepatitis-B carriers, Lancet 2: 1175–1178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. McHugh, P. R., and Slavney, P R., 1983, The Perspectives of Psychiatry, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  125. McKinney, R. E., Jr., Katz, S. L., and Wilfert, C. M., 1987, Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis in agammaglobulinemic patients, Rev. Infect. Dis. 9: 334–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mannering, G. J., and Deloria, L. B., 1986, The pharmacology and toxicology of the interferons: An overview, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 26: 455–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Maricq, H. R., 1966a, Familial schizophrenia as defined by nailfold capillary pattern and selected psychiatric traits, 1 Nerv. Ment. Dis. 142: 369–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Maricq, H. R., 1966b, Capillary morphology and the course of illness in schizophrenic patients, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 142: 66–71.Google Scholar
  129. Martelly, I., and Jullien, P., 1974, Effect of repeated injections of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid on mouse hematopoietic stem cells, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 53: 1021–1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Masdeu, J. C., Smâll, C. B., Weiss, L., Elkin, C. M., Llena, J., and Mesa-Tejada, R., 1988, Multifocal cytomegalovirus encephalitis in AIDS, Ann. Neurol. 23: 97–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Mattson, K., Niiranen, A., Iivanainen, M., Farkkilia, M., Bergstrom, I., Holsti, L. R., Kauppinen, H. L., and Cantell, K., 1983, Neurotoxicity of interferon, Cancer Treat. Rep. 67: 958–961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Mellor, C. S., 1968, Dermatoglyphics in schizophrenia, Br. J. Psychiatry 114: 1387–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Melnick, J. L., 1985, Enteroviruses: Polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses, in: Virology ( B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, R. M. Chanock, J. L. Melnick, B. Roizman, and R. E. Shope, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 739–794.Google Scholar
  134. Menninger, K., 1926, Influenza and schizophrenia, Am. J. Psychiatry 5: 469–529.Google Scholar
  135. Menninger, K., 1928, The schizophrenic syndrome as a product of acute infectious disease, Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 20: 464–481.Google Scholar
  136. Merigan, T. C., Baer, G. M., Winkler, W. G., Bernard, K. W., Gibert, C. G., Chany, C., Veronesi, R., and the collaborative group, 1984, Human leukocyte interferon administration to patients with symptomatic and suspected rabies, Ann. Neurol. 16: 82–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Moises, H. W, Schindler, L., Lerous, M., and Kirchner, H., 1985, Decreased production of interferon alpha and interferon gamma in leucocyte cultures of schizophrenic patients, Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 72: 45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Moises, H. W, Beck, H., Schindler, L., and Kirchner, H., 1986, Interferon production in schizophrenic patients, in: Biological Psychiatry 1985 ( C. H. Shagass, R. C. Josiassen, W H. Bridger, K. J. Weiss, D. Stoff, and G. M. Simpson eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1098–1100.Google Scholar
  139. Monif, G. R. G., Egan, E. A., II, Held, B., and Eitzman, D. V., 1972, The correlation of maternal cytomegalovirus infection during varying stages in gestation with neonatal involvement, J. Pediatr. 80: 17–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Monjan, A. A., 1981, Stress and immunologic competence: Studies in animals, in: Psychoneuroimmunology ( R. Ader, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 185–228.Google Scholar
  141. Murray, R. M., and Reveley, A. M., 1983, Schizophrenia as an infection, Lancet I: 583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Nair, M. P., and Schwartz, S. A., 1984, Association of decreased T-cell-mediated natural cytotoxicity and interferon production in Down’s syndrome, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 33: 412–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Nankervis, G. A., and Kumar, M. L., 1978, Diseases produced by cytomegaloviruses, Med. Clin. North Am. 62: 1021–1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Nurmi, T., Huttunen, K., Lassila, O., Henttonen, M., Sakkinen, A., Linna, S. L., and Tiilikainen, A., 1982, Natural killer cell function in trisomy-21 (Down’s syndrome), Clin. Exp. Immunol. 47: 735–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Nurnberg, H. G., Prudic, J., Fiori, M., and Freedman, E. P, 1984, Psychopathology complicating acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), Am. J. Psychiatry 141: 95–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Orzhekhovskaya, N. S., 1981, Frontal-striatal relationships in primate ontogeny, Neurosci. Behan Physiol. 11: 379–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Overall, J. C., 1981, Viral infections of the fetus and newborn, in: Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ( R. D. Feigin and J. D. Cherry, eds.), Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 684–721.Google Scholar
  148. Perl, D. P., 1975, The pathology of rabies in the central nervous system, in: The Natural History of Rabies ( G. M. Baer, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 235–272.Google Scholar
  149. Polednak, A. P., 1972, Dermatoglyphics of Negro schizophrenic males, Br. J. Psychiatry 120: 397–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Poser, C. M., 1980, Exacerbations, activity, and progression in multiple sclerosis, Arch. Neurol. 37: 471–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Preble, O. T., and Torrey, E. F., 1985, Serum interferon in patients with psychosis, Am. J. Psychiatry 142: 1184–1186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Prentice, R. L., Dalgleish, A. G., Gatenby, P A., Loblay, R. H., Wade, S., Kappagoda, N., and Basten, A., 1985, Central nervous system echovirus infection in Bruton’s x-linked hypogammaglobulinemia, Aust. N.Z. J. Med. 15: 443–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Price, R. W, Brew, B., Sidtis, J., Rosenblum, M., Scheck, A. C., and Cleary, P., 1988, The brain in AIDS: Central nervous system HIV-1 infection and AIDS dementia complex, Science 239: 586–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Quesada, J. R., Reuben, J., Manning, J. T., Hersh, E. M., and Gutterman, J. U., 1984, Alpha interferon for induction of remission in hairy cell leukemia, N. Engl. J. Med. 310: 15–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Quinn, P 0., and Rapoport, J. L., 1974, Minor physical anomalies and neurologic status in hyperactive boys, Pediatrics 53: 742–747.Google Scholar
  156. Reinicke, V., Mordhorst, C. H., and Ingerslev, N., 1974, Central nervous system affection in connection with “ordinary” measles, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 6: 131–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Reiss-Levy, E., Baker, A., Don, N., and Caldwell, G., 1986, Two concurrent epidemics of enteroviral meningitis in an obstetric neonatal unit, Aust. N.Z. J. Med. 16: 365–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Renault, P. F., Hoofnagle, J. H., Park, Y., Mullen, K. D., Peters, M., Jones, D. B., Rustgi, V., and Jones, E. A., 1987, Psychiatric complications of long-term interferon alfa therapy, Ann. Intern. Med. 147: 1577–1580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rethore, M., 1981, Structural variation of chromosome 21 and symptoms of Down’s syndrome, Hum. Genet. 2 (Suppl): 173–182.Google Scholar
  160. Reynolds, D. W, Stagno, S., Stubbs, K. G., Dahle, A. J., Livingston, M. M., Saxon, S. S., and Alford, C. A., 1974, Inapparent congenital cytomegalovirus infection with elevated cord IgM levels, N. Engl. J. Med. 290: 291–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rhodes-Feuillette, A., Canivet, M., Champsaur, H., Gluckman, E., Mazeron, M. C., and Peries, J., 1983, Circulating interferon in cytomegalovirus infected bone-marrow-transplant recipients and in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus disease, J. Interferon Res. 3: 45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Rimón, R., Nishmi, M., and Halonen, P., 1978, Serum and CSF antibody levels to herpes simplex type I, measles, and rubella viruses in patients with schizophrenia, Ann. Clin. Res. 10: 291–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Rimón, R., Ahokas, A., Hintikka, J., and Heikkila, L., 1985, Serum interferon in schizophrenia, Ann. Clin. Res. 17: 139–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Robert-Guroff, M., Torrey, E. F., and Brown, M., 1985, Retroviruses and schizophrenia, Br. J. Psychiatry 146: 326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Rodriguez, M., Leibowitz, J. L., and Lampert, P. W, 1983, Persistent infection of oligodendrocytes in Theiler’s virus-induced encephalomyelitis, Ann. Neural. 13: 426–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Roizman, B., and Sears, A. E., 1987, An inquiry into the mechanisms of herpes simplex virus latency, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 41: 543–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Rosendorff, C., and Mooney, J. J., 1971, Central nervous system sites of action of purified leucocyte pyrogen, Am. J. Physiol. 220: 597–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Rossi, G. B., 1985, Interferons and cell differentiation, Interferon 6: 31–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Roy, A., Pickar, D., Ninan, P, Hooks, J., and Paul, S., 1985, A search for interferon in the CSF of chronic schizophrenic patients, Am. J. Psychiatry 142: 269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Rubinstein, M., and Orchansky, P., 1986, The interferon receptors, CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem. 21: 249–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sands, I. J., 1928, The acute psychiatric type of epidemic encephalitis, Am. J. Psychiatry 7: 975–987.Google Scholar
  172. Scheibel, A. B., and Kovelman, J. A., 1981, Disorientation of the hippocampal pyramidal cell and its processes in the schizophrenic patient, Biol. Psychiatry 16: 101–102.Google Scholar
  173. Schindler, L., Leroux, M., Beck, J., Moises, H. W, and Kirchner, H., 1986, Studies of cellular immunity, serum interferon titers, and natural killer cell activity in schizophrenic patients, Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 73: 651–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Schleifer, S. J., Keller, S. E., Camerino, M., Thornton, C. J., and Stein, M., 1983, Suppression of lymphocyte stimulation following bereavement, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 250: 374–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Seeman, M. V., 1986, Current outcome in schizophrenia: Women vs. men, Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 73: 609–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Sekellick, M. J., and Marcus, P. I., 1980, The interferon system as a regulator of persistent infection, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 350: 545–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sequiera, L. W, Carrasco, L. H., Curry, A., Jennings, L. C., Lord, M. A., and Sutton, R. N. P., 1979, Detection of herpes-simplex viral genome in brain tissue, Lancet 2: 609–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sever, J. L., 1982, Infections in pregnancy, highlights from the collaborative perinatal project, Teratology 25: 227–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Shelton, R. C., and Weinberger, D. R., 1986, X-Ray computerized tomography studies of schizophrenia: A review and synthesis, in: The Neurology of Schizophrenia ( H. A. Nasrallah, and D. R. Weinberger, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 207–250.Google Scholar
  180. Shrikhande, S., Hirsch, S. R., Coleman, J. C., Reveley, M. A., and Dayton, R., 1985, Cytomegalovirus and schizophrenia: A test of a viral hypothesis, Br. J. Psychiatry 146: 503–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Smedley, H., Kaiak, M., Sikora, K., and Wheeler, T., 1983, Neurological effects of recombinant human interferon, Br. Med. J. 286: 262–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Smith, E. M., and Blalock, J. E., 1981–82, The hormonal nature of the interferon system, Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 41: 350–358.Google Scholar
  183. Smith, R. A., Norris, F., Palmer, D., Bernhardt, L., and Wills, R. J., 1985, Distribution of alpha interferon in serum and cerebrospinal fluid after systemic administration, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 37: 85–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Smith-Johannsen, H., Hou, Y.-T., Liu, X.-Y., and Tan, Y.-H., 1984, Regulatory control of interferon synthesis and action, Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 71: 101–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Snyder, S. H., 1973, Amphetamine psychosis: A “model” schizophrenia mediated by catecholamines, Am. J. Psychiatry 130: 61–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Springer, J. E., Isaacson, R. L., Ryan, J. P, and Hannigan, J. H., Jr., 1983, Dopamine depletion in nucleus accumbens reduces ACTHI_24-induced excessive grooming, Life Sci. 33: 207–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Staeheli, P., and Haller, O., 1985, Interferon-induced human protein with homology to protein Mx of influenza virus-resistant mice, Mol. Cell. Biol. 5: 2150–2153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Stagno, S., Pass, R. F., Dworsky, M. E., Britt, W. J., and Alford, C. A.,1984, Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infections: Clinical characteristics and pathogenic factors, Birth Defects: Orig. Artic. Ser. 20: 65–85.Google Scholar
  189. Stevens, J. R., 1988, Schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis, Schiz. Bull. 14: 231–241.Google Scholar
  190. Stevens, J. R., Langloss, J. M., Albrecht, P., Yolken, R., and Wang, Y.-N., 1984, A search for cytomegalovirus and herpes viral antigen in brains of schizophrenic patients, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 41: 795–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Strauss, J. S., Carpenter, W. T., and Bartko, J. J., 1974, Towards an understanding of the symptom picture considered characteristic of schizophrenia: Its description, precursors and outcome, Schiz. Bull. Winter:61-69.Google Scholar
  192. Stringfellow, D. A., Kern, E. R., Kelsey, D. K., and Glasgow, L. A., 1977, Suppressed response to interferon induction in mice infected with encephalomyocarditis virus, Semliki forest virus, influenza A2 virus, herpesvirus hominis type 2, or mutine cytomegalovirus, J. Infect. Dis. 135: 540–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Suter, C. C., Westmoreland, B. E, Sharbrough, F. W, and Hermann, R. C., 1984, Electroencephalographic abnormalities in interferon encephalopathy: A preliminary report, Mayo Clin. Proc. 59: 847–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Tan, Y. H., and Inoue, M., 1982, The detection of interferon activity in human amniotic fluid, in: Interferon ( T. C. Merigan and R. M. Friedman, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 249–252.Google Scholar
  195. Tan, Y. H., Chou, E. L., and Lundh, N., 1975, Regulation of chromosome 21-directed anti-viral gene(s) as a consequence of age, Nature 257: 310–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Taylor, G. R., Crow, T. J., Higgins, T., and Reynolds, G., 1985, Search for cytomegalovirus in postmortem brain tissue from patients with Huntington’s chorea and other psychiatric disease by molecular hybridization using cloned DNA, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 44: 176–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Thomas, C. S., and Szabadi, E., 1987, Paranoid psychosis as the first presentation of a fulminating lethal case of AIDS, Br. J. Psychiatry 151: 693–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Toorkey, C. B., and Carrigan, D. R., 1989, Immunohistochemical detection of an immediate early antigen of human cytomegalovirus in normal tissues, J. Infect. Dis. 160: 741–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Torrey, E. F., and Kaufmann, C. A., 1986, Schizophrenia and neuroviruses, in: Handbook of Schizophrenia, Volume 1 ( H. A. Nasrallah and D. R. Weinberger, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 361–376.Google Scholar
  200. Torrey, E. F., Yolken, R. H., and Winfrey, C. J., 1982, Cytomegalovirus antibody in cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients detected by enzyme immunoassay, Science 216: 892–894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Torrey, E. F., Rawlings, R., and Waldman, I. N., 1988, Schizophrenia births and viral diseases in two states, Schiz. Res. 1: 73–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Toy, J. L., 1983, The interferons, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 54: 1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Vaugott, U., and Lebon, P., 1988, Multiple sclerosis: Involvement of interferons in lesion pathogenesis, Ann. Neurol. 24: 243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Vafai, A., Murray, R. S., Wellish, M., Devlin, M., and Gilden, D. H., 1988, Expression of varicellazoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 2362–2366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Vazeux, R., Brousse, N., Jarry, A., Henin, D., Marche, C., Vedrenne, C., Mikol, J., Wolff, M., Michon, C., Rozenbaum, W, Bureau, J. F., Montagnier, L., and Brahic, M., 1987, AIDS subacute encephalitis: Identification of HIV-infected cells, Am. J. Pathol. 126: 403–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Volpe, J. J., 1987, The Neurology of the Newborn, Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 33–68.Google Scholar
  207. Waldrop, M. F., Pedersen, F A., and Bell, R. Q., 1968, Minor physical anomalies and behavior in preschool children, Child Dey. 39: 391–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Waltrip, R. W, Carrigan, D. R., Carpenter, W. T., 1990, Immunopathology and viral reactivation: A general theory of schizophrenia, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 178: 729–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Watt, D. C., Katz, K., and Shepherd, M., 1983, The natural history of schizophrenia: A 5-year prospective follow-up of a representative sample of schizophrenics by means of a standardized clinical and social assessment, Psycho!. Med. 13: 663–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Weinberger, D. R., 1987, Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 44: 660–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Weinberger, D. R., Wagner, R. L., and Wyatt, R. J., 1983, Neuropathological studies of schizophrenia: A selective review, Schiz. Bull. 9: 193–212.Google Scholar
  212. Williams, B. R. G., Read, S. E., Freedman, M. H., Carver, D. H., and Gelfand, E. W, 1982, The assay of 2’-5 ‘A synthetase as an indicator of interferon activity and virus infection in vivo, in: Interferons ( T. C. Merrigan and R. M. Friedman, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 253–267.Google Scholar
  213. Winston, D. J., Huang, E.-S., Miller, M. J., Lin, C.-H., Ho, W. G., Gale, R. P, and Champlin, R. E., 1985, Molecular epidemiology of cytomegalovirus infections associated with bone marrow transplantation, Ann. Intern. Med. 102: 16–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Wright, H. T., Parker, C. E., and Mavalwala, J., 1972, Unusual dermatoglyphic findings associated with cytomegalic inclusion disease of infancy—A first report and practical review, Calif. Med. 116: 14–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Yow, M. D., Williamson, D. W, Leeds, L. J., Thompson, P., Woodward, R. M., Walmus, B. F., Lester, J. W, Six, H. R., and Griffiths, P. D., 1988, Epidemiologic characteristics of cytomegalovirus infection in mothers and their infants, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158: 1189–1195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Zarling, J. M., 1984, Effects of interferon and its inducers on leucocytes and their immunologic functions, in: Interferons and Their Applications ( P. E. Came and W. A. Carter, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 403–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Zubin, J., Magaziner, J., and Steinhauer, S. R., 1983, The metamorphosis of schizophrenia: From chronicity to vulnerability, Psychol. Med. 13: 551–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Royce W. WaltripII
    • 1
  • Donald R. Carrigan
    • 2
  • Robert W. Buchanan
    • 1
  • William T. CarpenterJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations