Effects of Stress on a Murine Neurotropic Retrovirus Infection

  • W. P. Paré
  • D. S. Robbins
  • J. L. Martin
  • P. M. Hoffman


Psychological and environmental factors have long been recognized as affecting health and disease (Monjan and Collector, 1977; Riley, 1981; Sklar and Anisman, 1980; Weiner, 1977; Wolf and Goodell, 1968). The immune system is also quite responsive to environmental perturbations. Many investigators have documented changes in the immune system resulting from stressful stimulation (Ader, 1981; Cooper, 1984; Monjan, 1981; Riley, 1981; Rogers etal.,1979). Susceptibility to infectious diseases is also influenced by exposure to environmental stressors (Amkraut et al., 1971; Friedman et al.,1969; Locke and Hornig-Rohan, 1983; Rasmussen et al., 1957; Yamada et al., 1964). Given that variations in the immune response and susceptibility to infectious disease have been related to stress exposure, it is reasonable to consider the possibility that stress may be involved in the pathogenesis and clinical expression of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Britton, 1986; Locke et al.,1984; Risenberg, 1986; Stein, 1985). The discovery that a human retrovirus (HIV) infection can cause AIDS in man has focused attention on animal retrovirus infections as models of AIDS. The fact that murine retroviruses (MuLV) can cause immunodeficiency (Mosier et al., 1985) and neurodegeneration (Hoffman et al., 1981) makes them useful as models for human retrovirus infections. The question of how stress may be related to the development and clinical manifestations of AIDS can be formed with basic investigations using these animal models.


Herpes Simplex Type Swiss Mouse Wild Mouse Symptom Severity Score Neonatal Herpes Simplex 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. P. Paré
    • 1
  • D. S. Robbins
    • 2
  • J. L. Martin
    • 2
  • P. M. Hoffman
    • 2
  1. 1.Veterans Administration Medical CenterPerry PointUSA
  2. 2.Veterans Administration Medical CenterBaltimoreUSA

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