Advertisement

Abstract

Numerous mental and neurological disorders in recent years have been linked to biologic factors, and in this respect extensive research has been directed toward viral infections and immune dysfunction.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patient Tropical Spastic Paraparesis Myalgic Encephalomyelitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahokas, A., Ramon, R., Koskiniemi, M., Vaheri, A., Julkunen, I., and Saona, S., 1987, Viral antibodies and interferon in acute psychiatric disorders, J. Clin. Psychiatry 48: 194–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhagavati, S., Ehrlich, G., and Kula R. W, 1988, Detection of human T-cell lymphoma leukemia virus type 1 DNA and antigen in spinal fluid and blood of patients with chronic progressive myelopathy, N. Engl. J. Med. 318: 1141–1144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Crow, T. J., 1983, Is schizophrenia an infectious disease? Lancet 1: 173–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crow, T. J., 1987, Genes and viruses in schizophrenia: The retrovirus transposon hypothesis, in: Viruses, Immunity and Mental Disorders ( E. Kurstak, Z. J. Lipowski, and P V. Morozov, eds.), Plenum Medical, New York, pp. 125–134.Google Scholar
  5. De la Monte, S. M., Ho, D. D., Scharley, R. T., Hirsch, M. S., and Richardson, E. P., 1987, Subacute encephalomyelitis of AIDS and its reaction to HTLV III infection, Neurology 37: 562–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Denman, A. M., 1990, The chronic fatigue syndrome: A return to common sense, Postgrad. Med. J. 66: 499–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gessain, A., Barin, F., and Vernant, J. C., 1985, Antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis, Lancet 2: 407–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Homsy, J., Meyer, M., Tatino, M., Clarkson, S. J., and Levi, A., 1989, The Fc and not CD4 receptor mediates antibody enhancement of HIV infection in human cells, Science 244: 1357–1360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jenike, M. A., and Pato, C., 1986, Disabling fear of AIDS responsive to imipramine, Psychosomatics 27: 143–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kayembe, K., Goubau, P., Desmyter, J., Vlietinck, R., and Carton, H., 1990, A cluster of HTLV 1 associated tropical spastic paraparesis in Equateur (Zaire) ethnic and familial distribution, J. Neurol. and Neurosurg. Psychiatry 53: 4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Koenig, S., Genselsmon, H. E., and Ovenstein, J. M., 1986, Detection of AIDS virus in macrophages in brain tissue from AIDS patients with encephalopathy, Science 207: 1089–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Libikova, H., 1983, Schizophrenia and viruses: Principles and ecologic studies, Adv. Biol. Psychiatry 12: 20–51.Google Scholar
  13. Lipowski, Z. J., 1985, Psychosomatic Medicine and Liaison Psychiatry: Selected Papers, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mednick, S. A., Machon, R. A., and Huttunen, M. O., 1988, Adult schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to an influenza epidemic, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 45: 189–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Osame, M., Matsumoto, M., and Usuku, K., 1987, Chronic progressive myelopathy with elevated antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus type 1 and adult T-cell leukemia-like cells, Ann. Neurol. 21: 117–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Preble, O. T., and Torrey, E. F., 1985, Serum interferon in patient with psychosis, Am. J. Psychiatry 142: 184–186.Google Scholar
  17. Rorie, G. A., 1901, Post-influenzal insanity in the Cumberland and Westmoreland asylum, with statistics of sixty-eight cases, J. Ment. Sci. 47: 317–326.Google Scholar
  18. Sequiera, L. W, Jennings, L. C., Carasco, L. H., Lord, M., Curry, A., and Sutto, R. N. P., 1979, Detection of herpes simplex virus genome in brain tissue, Lancet 2: 608–612.Google Scholar
  19. Sigurdsson, B., 1954, Chronic encephalitis of sheep, with general remarks on infections which develop slowly and some of their special characteristics, Bri. Vet. J. 110: 341–352.Google Scholar
  20. Torrey, E. F., Rawlings, R., and Waldman, I. N., 1988, Schizophrenic births and viral diseases in two states, Schiz. Res. 1: 73–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Villemain, F., Chatenaud, L., Galinowski, A., Homo-Delarche, F., Ginestet, D., Loo, H., Zarifian, E., and Bach, J. F., 1989, Aberrant T cell mediated immunity in untreated schizophrenic patients. Deficient interleukin-2 production, Am. J. Psychiatry 146: 609–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Watson, C. G., Kulcala, T., and Tilleskjor, C., 1984, Schizophrenic birth seasonality in relation to the incidence of infectious diseases and temperature extremes, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 41: 85–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edouard Kurstak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MontrealMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations