New Methods for On-Site Biological Monitoring of Effluent Water Quality

  • Henry S. Gardner
  • William H. van der Schalie
  • Marilyn J. Wolfe
  • Robert A. Finch
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 38)


The presence of contaminated water and wastewater at industrial and hazardous waste sites is a costly problem for the military. The Department of Defense (DOD) operates 500 to 700 domestic wastewater treatment plants and 100 to 200 industrial wastewater treatment plants in the continental United States (Anon, 1985). In addition, DOD has 400–800 waste disposal sites requiring remedial actions that are conservatively estimated to cost $5–10 billion over the next 5–10 years. Many of these sites contain complex mixtures of chemicals and an estimated 35% contain military-unique materials (Naugle, 1986).


Fathead Minnow Hazardous Waste Site Carcinogenicity Study Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anon, In Defense of Treatment, 1985, Water Pollut. Control. Fed. Highlights, 22 (4): 3.Google Scholar
  2. Black, J.J., 1984, Aquatic Animal Neoplasia as an Indicator for Carcinogenic Hazards to Man, J. Sarena, ed., Hazard Assessment of Chemicals, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, pp. 181–232.Google Scholar
  3. Cairns, J. Jr., and van der Schalie, W.H., 1982, Biological Monitoring Part I-early warning systems, in: “Biological Monitoring in Water Pollution,” J. Cairns, Jr. ed., Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 1179–1199.Google Scholar
  4. Couch, J.A., and Harshbarger, J.C., 1985, Effects of Carcinogenic Agents on Aquatic Animals: An environmental and experimental overview, Environ. Carcinog. Rev., 3 (1): 63–185.Google Scholar
  5. Goodfellow, W.L., 1987, Results of Chronic Toxicity Tests Conducted on Effluent, EA Aquatic Toxicology Report 12–2–87–165, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., Sparks, MD.Google Scholar
  6. Grizzle, J.M., Melius, P., and Strength, D.R., 1984, Papillomas on Fish Exposed to Wastewater, J. Nat. Cancer Inst., 73 (5): 1133–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gudnason, H.M., Huynh, M., Harris, C., Allen, G.W., and Orth, D., 1987, Comprehensive Water quality Analysis Report, Rockville, MD, Biospherics Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Hawkins, W.E., Overstreet, R.M., and Walker, W.W., 1988, Small fish models for identifying carcinogens in the aqueous environment, Water Res. Bull., 24 (5): 941–949.Google Scholar
  9. Hoover, K.L., ed., 1984, The Use of Small Fish Species in Carcinogenicity Testing, NCI Monograph No. 65.Google Scholar
  10. Horning, W.B., II, and Weber, C.I., 1985, Short–Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, EPA–600/4–85–014, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  11. Jagannath, D.R., 1987a, Mutagenicity Test on Water Sample 87–307–1 in the Ames Sa;monella/microsome Reverse Mutation Assay, Hazleton Laboratories America, Inc., Kensington, MD.Google Scholar
  12. Jagannath, D.R., 1987b, Mutagenicity Test on an Extract of the Water Sample 87–307–1 in the Ames Salmonella/microsome Reverse Mutation Assay, Hazleton Laboratories America, Inc., Kensington, MD.Google Scholar
  13. Liu, D.H.W., Spanggord, R.J., Bailey, H.C., Javitz, H.S., and Jones, D.C.L., 1984, Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms, Volume II, Acute Toxicity of Condensate Wastewater and 2,4-Dinitrotoluene, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  14. Masahito, P., Ishikawa, T., and Sugano, H., 1988, Fish Tumors and Their Importance in cancer research, Gann, 79: 545–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Naugle, D., 1986, “Report of the DOD/EPA/DOE Working Group to Explore Hazardous Waste Technology Cooperative Efforts,” PEER Consultants, Inc., Rockville, MD, p. 13.Google Scholar
  16. van der Schalie, W. H., 1986, Can biological monitoring early warning systems be useful in detecting toxic materials in water? in: “Aquatic Toxicology and Environmental Fate: Ninth Volume, ASTM STP 921,” T. M. Poston and R. Purdy, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 107–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. van der Schalie, W.H., Shedd, T.R., and Zeeman, M.G., 1988, Ventilatory and movement responses of bluegills exposed to 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, in: “Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment, Tenth Volume, ASTM STP 971,” W. Adams, G. Chapman, and W.G. Landis, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 307–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wolfe, M.J., 1988, Utilization of Fish to Evaluate the Carcinogenic Potential of Army Wastewaters: Pathology Report, Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc., Herndon, VA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry S. Gardner
    • 1
  • William H. van der Schalie
    • 1
  • Marilyn J. Wolfe
    • 2
  • Robert A. Finch
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Army Biomedical Research and Development LaboratoryFrederickUSA
  2. 2.Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc.HerndonUSA

Personalised recommendations