Dna-Carcinogen Adducts in Fish as a Tool for Measuring the Effective Biological dose of Aquatic Carcinogens
The majority of chemical carcinogens act by inducing genetic damage in cells. The most common type of such damage results when the carcinogen (or its metabolite) covalently binds to DNA, forming a DNA-carcinogen adduct. Such adducts are generally thought to be relatively benign in nondividing cells, and may be removed from the DNA by a variety of enzymatic DNA repair mechanisms. However, if repair is not complete when cells with DNA-carcinogen adducts attempt to divide, the damaged DNA may be used as a template for DNA synthesis. Attempts to replicate adducted DNA can lead to a variety of types of heritable genetic damage, including point mutations, deletions, insertions and translocations. Such mutations are capable of activating oncogenes and producing cells that are genetically programmed to form a neoplasm.
KeywordsPolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Effective Biological Dose Genetic Damage Adduct Level Environmental Carcinogen
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