Earthworm Immunoassays for Evaluating Biological Effects of Exposure to Hazardous Materials

  • Lloyd C. Fitzpatrick
  • Arthur J. Goven
  • Barney J. Venables
  • Jorge Rodriguez-Grau
  • Edwin L. Coopey
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 38)


A noncontroversial and cost-effective system of laboratory and in situ bioassays capable of integrating variables of environmental concentration, route of exposure and bioavailability with a broadly applicable suite of toxic endpoints is needed to assess biological risks of environmental pollutants from hazardous and Superfund waste sites, both before and after clean-up. The system also would be useful in screening or categorizing wastes, such as industrial and municipal solids, combustion residues from incinerated solids, sewage treatment sludge, and dredged sediments for appropriate landfill disposal i.e., sanitary versus hazardous). An extensive literature on the basic biology and ecology of earthworms (Edwards and Lofty, 1977; Satchell and Martin, 1981; Satchell, 1983; Lee, 1985; Fitzpatrick et al., 1989) and from laboratory and in situ toxicity and/or bioaccumulation studies (Appendix 1, No. 1) supports using several earthworm species to develop standardized protocols (Appendix 1, No. 2) for evaluating biological risks of terrestrial pollutants.


Immune Parameter Earthworm Species Rosette Formation Hazardous Waste Site Sewage Treatment Sludge 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lloyd C. Fitzpatrick
    • 1
  • Arthur J. Goven
    • 1
  • Barney J. Venables
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jorge Rodriguez-Grau
    • 1
  • Edwin L. Coopey
    • 3
  1. 1.Environmental Effects Research Group Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA
  2. 2.TRAC Laboratories, Inc.DentonUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory of Comparative Immunology Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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