Advertisement

Earthworm Immunoassays for Evaluating Biological Effects of Exposure to Hazardous Materials

  • Lloyd C. Fitzpatrick
  • Arthur J. Goven
  • Barney J. Venables
  • Jorge Rodriguez-Grau
  • Edwin L. Coopey
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 38)

Abstract

A noncontroversial and cost-effective system of laboratory and in situ bioassays capable of integrating variables of environmental concentration, route of exposure and bioavailability with a broadly applicable suite of toxic endpoints is needed to assess biological risks of environmental pollutants from hazardous and Superfund waste sites, both before and after clean-up. The system also would be useful in screening or categorizing wastes, such as industrial and municipal solids, combustion residues from incinerated solids, sewage treatment sludge, and dredged sediments for appropriate landfill disposal i.e., sanitary versus hazardous). An extensive literature on the basic biology and ecology of earthworms (Edwards and Lofty, 1977; Satchell and Martin, 1981; Satchell, 1983; Lee, 1985; Fitzpatrick et al., 1989) and from laboratory and in situ toxicity and/or bioaccumulation studies (Appendix 1, No. 1) supports using several earthworm species to develop standardized protocols (Appendix 1, No. 2) for evaluating biological risks of terrestrial pollutants.

Keywords

Immune Parameter Earthworm Species Rosette Formation Hazardous Waste Site Sewage Treatment Sludge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beyer, W.N., and Gish, C.D., 1980, Persistence in earthworms and potential hazards to birds of soil applied DDT, Dieldrin and Heptachlor, J. Applied Ecol. 17: 295–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bostrom, U., and Lofs-Holmin, H., 1982, Testing side effects of pesticides on soil fauna-a critical review, Report 12, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Department of Ecology and Environmental Research, Uppsala, Sweden.Google Scholar
  3. Callahan, C.A., 1988, Earthworms as ecotoxicological assessment tools, in: “Proceedings of International Conference on Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management,” July 1984, C.A. Edwards and E.F. Neuhauser, eds., Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  4. Callahan, C.H., Russell, L.K., and Peterson, S.A., 1985, A comparison of three earthworm bioassay procedures for the assessment of environmental samples containing hazardous wastes, Biol. Fert. Soils, 1: 195–200.Google Scholar
  5. Chateaureynaud-Duprat, P., and Izoard, F., 1977, Compared study of immunity between two genera of lumbricians: Eisenia and Lumbricus. in: “Developmental Immunology,” J.B. Solomon and J.D. Horton, eds., Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 33–40.Google Scholar
  6. Cooper, E.L., 1968, Transplantation immunity in annelids, I. Rejection of xenografts exchanged between Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia foetida., Transplantation, 6: 322–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cooper, E.L., 1969a, Specific tissue graft rejection in earthworms, Science, 166: 1414–1415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooper, E.L., 1969b, Neoplasia and transplantation immunity in annelids, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 31: 655–669.Google Scholar
  9. Cooper, E.L., 1971, Phylogeny of transplantation immunity, Graft rejection in earthworms, Transplant. Proc., 3: 214–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cooper, E.L., 1973a, Evolution of cellular immunity, in: “Proceedings of Symposium, Nonspecific Factors Influencing Host Resistance,” W. Braun and J. Ungar, eds., S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland, pp. 11–23.Google Scholar
  11. Cooper, E.L., 1973b, Earthworm coelomocytes: role in understanding the evolution of cellular immunity, I., Formation of monolayers and cytotoxicity, in: “Proc. III Int. Colloq. Invertebrate Tissue Culture,” J. Rehacek, D. Blaskovic, W.F. Hink, eds., Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, pp. 381–404.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, E.L., 1974a, Phylogeny of leucocytes: earthworm coelomocytes in vitro and in vivo, in: “Lymphocyte Recognition and Effector Mechanisms, Proc. Eighth Leucocyte Culture Conf.,” K. Lindahl-Kiessling and D. Osoba, eds., Academic Press, New York, pp. 155–162.Google Scholar
  13. Cooper, E.L., 1974b, Transplantation immunity in annelids. IV., Influence of earthworm size on rejection, J. Invertebr. Pathol., 24: 260–261.Google Scholar
  14. Cooper, E.L., 1975, Characteristics of CMI and memory in annelids, in: “Immunologic Phylogeny. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Vol. 64,” A.H. Hildemann and A.A. Benedict, eds., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 127–136.Google Scholar
  15. Cooper, E.L., 1976, The earthworm coelomocyte: a mediator of cellular immunity. in: “Phylogeny of Thymus and Bone Marrow-Cursa Cells,” R.K. Wright and E.L. Cooper, eds., Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 90.Google Scholar
  16. Cooper, E.L., Stein, E.A., Tochinai, S., Wojdani, A., and Lemmi, C.A.E., 1981, Earthworms, immunology and aging, in: “Workshop on the Role of Earthworms in the Stabilization of Organic Residues,” M. Appelhof, Complier, Beech Leaf Press of Kalamazoo Nature Center, Proc. Vol. 1, pp. 49–57.Google Scholar
  17. Cooper, E.L., and Roch, P., 1984, Earthworm leukocyte interactions during early stages of graft rejection, J. Exp. Zool., 232: 67–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cooper, E.L., and Roch, P., 1986, Second-set allograft responses in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris: Kinetics and characteristics, Transplantation, 41: 514–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooper, E.L., Roch, P. and Wright, R.K., 1982, Phylogeny of mononuclear phagocytes, in: “Self-Defense Mechanisms: Role of Macrophages,” D. Mizuno, Z.A., Cohn, A., Takaya, K., and Ishida, N., eds., University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 3–14.Google Scholar
  20. Dean-Ross, D., 1983, Methods for the assessment of the toxicity of environmental chemicals to earthworms, Regul. Tox. Pharm., 3: 48–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drewes, C.D., Vining, E.P., 1984, In vivo neurotoxic effects of dieldrin on giant nerve fibers and escape reflex function in the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 22: 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drewes, C.D., Vining, E.P., and Callahan, C.A., 1984, Non-invasive electrophysiological monitoring: A sensitive method for detecting sublethal neurotoxicity in earthworms. Environ. Tox. Chem., 3: 599–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Drewes, C.D., Vining, E.P., and Callahan, C.A., 1988, Electrophysicological detection of sublethal neurotoxic effects in intact earthworms, in: “Proceedings of the International Conference on Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management,” C.A. Edwards, and E.F. Neuhauser, eds., July 1984, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  24. Edwards, C.A., 1984, Report of the second stage in development of a standardized laboratory method for assessing the toxicity of chemical substances to earthworms, Report EUR 9360 EN. Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  25. Edwards, C.A., and J.R. Lofty, 1977. Lofty, 1977, “Biology of Earthworms,” Chapman and Hill, London. EEC (Commission of the European Communities) 1984, Report of the second stage in development of a standardized laboratory method for assessing the toxicity of chemical substances to earthworms, The artificial soil test, DG Xl/AL/82/83, Rev. 4, 1984.Google Scholar
  26. Eyambe, G., Goven, A.J., Fitzpatrick, L.C., Venables, B.J., and Cooper, E.L., 1989, Extrusion protocol for use in long-term immunological studies with earthworm Lumbricus terrestris coelomic leukocytes, Laboratory Animal Dev. Comp. Immunol., (submitted).Google Scholar
  27. Fitzpatrick, L.C., Goven, A.J., Earle, B., Rodriguez, J., Briceno, J., and Venables, B.J., 1987, Thermal acclimation, preference and effects on V02 in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 87A: 1015–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goats, G., and Edwards, C.H., 1982, Testing the toxicity of industrial chemicals to earthworms, Rothausted Exp. Stn. Rep., 1982: 104–105.Google Scholar
  29. Coven, A.J., Venables, B.J., Fitzpatrick, L.C., and Cooper, E.L., 1988, An invertebrate model for analyzing effects of environmental xenobiotics on immunity, J. Clin. Ecol., 4: 150–154.Google Scholar
  30. Greene,.C., Bartels, C.L., Warren-Hicks, W.J., Parkhurst, B.R., Linder, G.L. Peterson, S.A., Miller, W.E., 1989, Protocols for Short-term Toxi ity Screening of Hazardous Waste Sites, U.S. EPA, EPA/600/3–88/ 029, Corvalis, OR.Google Scholar
  31. Heimbach, F., 1984, Correlations between three methods for determining the toxicity of chemicals to earthworms, Pestic. Sci., 15: 605–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Karnak, R.E., Hamelink, J.L., 1982, A standardized method for determining acute toxicity of chemicals to earthworms, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Sci., 6: 216–222.Google Scholar
  33. Lee, K.E., 1985, “Earthworms: Their Ecology and Relationships with Soils and Land Use,” Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Lofs-Homlin, A., 1980, Measuring growth of earthworms as a methods of testing sublethal toxicity of pesticides-experiments with benomyl and trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Swed. J. Agric. Res., 10: 25–33.Google Scholar
  35. Ma, W., 1984, Sublethal toxic effects of copper on growth, reproduction and litter breakdown activity in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, with observations on the influence of temperature and soil pH, Environ. Pollut., ( Series A ) 33: 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Malecki, M.R., Neuhauser, E.F., Loehr, R.C., 1982, The effects of metals on growth and reproduction of Eisenia foetida ( Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae). Pediobiolgia, 24: 129–137.Google Scholar
  37. Neuhauser, E.F., Malecki, M.R., Loehr, R.C., 1983, Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils, in: “Second Annual ASTM Symposium on testing of hazardous and industrial solid waste,” R.A. Conway and W.P. Gulledge, eds., Hazardous and Industrial Solid Waste Testing, ASTM STP 805, ASTM, Philadelphia, pp. 313–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Neuhauser, E.F., Malecki, M.R., Loehr, R.C., 1984, Growth and reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia foetida after exposure to sublethal concentrations of metals, Pedobioliga, 27: 89–97.Google Scholar
  39. Neuhauser, E.F., Loehr, R.C., Milligan, D.L., and Malecki, M.R., 1985, Toxicity of metals to the earthworms, Eisenia foetida, Biol. Fert. Soils, 1: 149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Neuhauser, E.F., Durkin, P.R., Milligan, D.L., and Anatra, M., 1986a, Comparative toxicity of ten organic chemicals to four earthworm species, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 83: 197–200.Google Scholar
  41. Neuhauser, E.F., Loehr, R.C., and Malecki, M.R., 1986b, Contact and artificial soil test using earthworms to evaluate the impact of wastes in soil, in: “Hazardous and Industrial Solid Waste Testing: Fourth Symposium, ASTM STP 886, J.K. Petros, Jr., W.J. Lacy and R.A. Conway, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 192–203.Google Scholar
  42. Organization for Economic Growth and Development (OECD) Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, 1984, Section 2, Effects on Biotic Systems: Earthworm Acute Toxicity Tests, Paris, France: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.Google Scholar
  43. Plumb, R.H., Jr., 1984, Characterization of hazardous waste sites: A methods manual, Vol. 3, Available Laboratory Analytical Methods, U.S. Department of Commerce, Environmental Protection Agency, EPA–600/ 4–84–038.Google Scholar
  44. Roberts, B.L., Dorough, H.W., 1984, Relative toxicities of chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia foetida., Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 3: 67–78.Google Scholar
  45. Roberts, B.L., and Dorough, H.W., 1985, Hazards of chemicals to earthworms, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 4: 307–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Satchell, J.E., ed., 1983, “Earthworm Ecology: From Darwin to Vermi-culture,” Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  47. Satchell, J.E., and Martin, K., 1981, A Bibliography of Earthworm Research, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Research Station, England: Orange-over-Sands.Google Scholar
  48. Stein, E.A., and Cooper, E.L., 1982, Agglutinins as receptor molecules: A Phylogenetic approach, in: “Developmental Immunology: Clinical Problems and Aging,” E.L. Cooper and M.A.B. Brazier, eds., Academic Press, New York, pp. 85–98.Google Scholar
  49. Stein, E.A., and Cooper, E.L., 1988, In vitro agglutinin production by earthworm leukocytes, Dev. Comp. Immunol., 12: 531–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stenersen, J., 1979, Action of pesticides on earthworms, Part III: Inhibition and reactivation of cholinesterases in Eisenia foetida ( Savigny) after treatment with cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides, Pestic. Sci., 10: 113–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stout, V., 1986, What is happening to PCBs? Elements of environmental monitoring as illustrated by an analysis of PCB trends in terrestrial and aquatic organisms, in: “PCBs and the Environment, Vol. I,” J.S. Waid, ed., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, pp. 163–205.Google Scholar
  52. Street, J.C., and Sharma, R.P., 1975, Alternation of induced cellular and humoral immune responses by pesticides and chemicals of environmental concern: Quantitative studies of immunosuppression by DDT, Aroclor 1254, carbaryl, carbofuran, and methylparathion, Toxicol. April. Pharmacol., 32: 587–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Thomas, P.T., and Hinsdill, R.D., 1978, Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on immune responses of Rhesus monkeys and mice, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 44: 41–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Thompson, A.R., 1971, Effects of nine insecticides on the numbers and biomass of earthworms in pasture, Bull. Environ. Contam. Tox., 5: 577–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tomlin, A.D. and Gore, F.L., 1974, Effects of six insecticides and a fungicide on the numbers and biomass of earthworms in pasture, Bull. Environ. Contam. Tox., 12: 487–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Van Gestel, C.A.M., and Ma, W., 1988, Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil, Ecotox. Environ. Saf., 15: 289–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vos, J.G., and De Roij, T.H., 1972, Immunosuppressive activity of a polychlorinated biphenyl preparation on the humoral immune response in guinea pigs, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 21: 549–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vos, J.G., and Van Driel-Grootenhyis, L., 1972, PCB-induced suppression of the humoral and cell-mediated immunity in guinea pigs, Sci. Total Environ., 1: 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lloyd C. Fitzpatrick
    • 1
  • Arthur J. Goven
    • 1
  • Barney J. Venables
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jorge Rodriguez-Grau
    • 1
  • Edwin L. Coopey
    • 3
  1. 1.Environmental Effects Research Group Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA
  2. 2.TRAC Laboratories, Inc.DentonUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory of Comparative Immunology Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations