Advertisement

Developing Comprehensive Field Studies to Identify Subchronic and Chronic Effects of Chemicals on Terrestrial Ecosystems: Ecosystem Health — VI

  • Edward W. Novak
  • David J. Schaeffer
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 38)

Abstract

The classical definition of an ecosystem couples interacting living organisms and non-living components of the environment to form one physical system (Tansley, 1935) and grew from the recognition that definable and describable units existed in nature. Ecosystem analysis has been advanced by an improved understanding of how ecosystems are structured and how they function. Ecology has advanced from an emphasis on natural history to consideration of energetics, the relationships and connections between species, hierarchies, and systems theory. Still, we consider ecosystems as entities with a distinctive character and individual characteristics. Measures of human or nonhuman animal health, and the clinical analysis of factors that contribute to a definition of a state of health, provide useful analogs to the problems faced by environmental managers attempting to maintain the integrity of ecosystems (Schaeffer et al., 1988). As found in human/nonhuman animal health studies, disease states of ecosystems must be recognized before disease is of clinical magnitude. This paper discusses a comprehensive, systematic approach to ecosystem analysis based on identification and quantification of factors that define the condition or state of an ecosystem in terms of health criteria.

Keywords

Ecological System Ecosystem Health Reference Area Ecosystem Analysis Subchronic Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beasley, V.R., and Schaeffer, D.J., 1989, The National Animal,Poison Information Network database as a tool for ecological risk assessment. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 10: 63–73.Google Scholar
  2. Duchelle, S.F, Skelly, J.M., and Chevone, B.I., 1982, Oxidant effects on forest tree seedling growth in the Appalachian Mountains, Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 18:363–373.Google Scholar
  3. Casto, J., 1980, Metodologia clinica de ecosistemas, in: “Ecologia: La Transfomacion de la Naturaleza por el Hombre,” Editiorial Universitaria: Stantiago, Chile.Google Scholar
  4. Herricks, E.E., and Schaeffer, D.J., 1987, Selection of Test Systems to Evaluate the Effects of Contaminants on Ecological Systems, UILU-ENG 87–2010, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
  5. Hinds, W.T., 1984, Towards monitoring of long-term trends for terrestrial ecosystems, Environ. Conservat. 11:11–18.Google Scholar
  6. Hurlbert, S.H., 1984, Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments, Ecol. Monogr. 54:187–211.Google Scholar
  7. Moore, M.N., Livingstone, D.R., Widdows, J., Lowe, D.M., and Pipe, R.K., 1987, Molecular, cellular and physiological effects of oil-derived hydrocarbons on molluscs and their use in impact assessment, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London. Ser. B. 316: 603–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Novak, E.W., and Schaeffer, D.J., 1988, Integrating epidemiology and epizootiology information in ecotoxicology studies, Ecosystem Health. III. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., In press.Google Scholar
  9. OECD, 1981, OECD Test guidelines, Report from the OECD expert groups on short term and long term toxicity, March 31, 1981, (Quoted by P.K. Chan, G.P. O’Hara, and A. W. Hayes, Principles and methods for acute and subchronic toxicity, in: “Principles and Methods of Toxicology,” A.W. Hayes, ed., New York: Raven Press, 1972, p. 6.Google Scholar
  10. Rapport, D.J., Reiger, H.A., and Hutchinson, T.C., 1985, Ecosystem behavior under stress, Am. Nat. 125: 617–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Schaeffer, D.J., and Beasley, V.R., 1989, Ecosystem Health. II., Quantifying and predicting ecosystem effects of toxic chemicals: Can mammalian testing be used for lab-to-field and field-to-lab extrapolations? Regul. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 9:296–311.Google Scholar
  12. Schaeffer, D.J., Kerster, H.W., Perry, J.A., and Cox, D.K., 1985, The Environmental Audit. I., Environ. Manage. 9:191–198.Google Scholar
  13. Schaeffer, D.J., Novak, E.W., Lower, W.R., Yanders, A., Kapila, S., and Wang, R., 1987, Effects of chemical smokes on flora and fauna under field and laboratory exposures, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 13: 310–315.Google Scholar
  14. Schaeffer, D.J., Herricks, E.E., and Kerster, H.W., 1988, Ecosystem Health: I. Measuring ecosystem health, Environ. Manage. 12:445–455.Google Scholar
  15. Schaeffer, D.J., Seastedt, T.R., Gibson, D.J., Hartnett, D.C., Hetrick, B.A., James, S.W., Kaufman, D.W., Schwab, A.P., Herricks, E.E., and Novak, E.W., 1990, Use of field bioassessments to select test systems for relevant impact assessments or hazard evaluations, Environmental Audit. IX., Training lands in tall-grass prairie, Environ. Manage., accepted for publication.Google Scholar
  16. Slobodkin, L.B., 1988, Intellectual problems of applied ecology, BioScience 38: 337–342.Google Scholar
  17. Tansley, A.G., 1935, The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms, Ecology 16: 284–307.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward W. Novak
    • 1
  • David J. Schaeffer
    • 2
  1. 1.USA-CERL (EN)ChampaignUSA
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary BiosciencesUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations