Advertisement

Circulating Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Pregnancy

  • E. A. Linton
  • C. D. A. Wolfe
  • D. P. Behan
  • P. J. Lowry
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 274)

Abstract

Normal circulating levels of human corticotropin releasing factor (hCRF), the most potent of the hypothalamic peptides stimulating pituitary ACTH release (1) are low, most workers reporting levels substantially below 100 pg/ml (2–10). This plasma CRF is thought to originate not only from the hypothalamus but also from several tissues outside of the brain such as the spinal cord, alimentary tracts, lung, pancreas, and adrenal gland, which have all been shown to contain CRF-like immunoreactivity (11–14). Release of CRF from these organs is thought to contribute a significant proportion of the CRF in the peripheral circulation, since most studies have been unable to demonstrate modulation of plasma CRF by stress and glucocorticoids (3–5,9,15,16), which would be expected if plasma CRF primarily reflected peptide release from the hypothalamus. Following the demonstration of CRF-like bioactivity (17,18) in extracts of human placenta, several reports appeared describing elevated levels of CRF in the plasma of women in the third trimester of pregnancy (10,18–22). Great variation exists in the absolute levels of the peptide measured and this may reflect, in part, the different assay and extraction systems used.

Keywords

Human Placenta Corticotrophin Release Factor Maternal Plasma Maternal Circulation Corticotrophin Release Factor mRNA 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Vale, W., J. Spiess, C. Rivier, and J. Rivier, Characterization of a 41-residue ovine hypothalamic peptide that stimulates secretion of corticotropin and ß-endorphin, Science 213 1394–1397,1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Suda, T., N. Tomori, F. Yajima, T. Sumitomo, Y. Nakagami, T. Ushiyama, H. Demura, and K. Shizume, Immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor in human plasma, J Clin Invest 762026–2029, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cunnah, D., D. Jessop, G.M. Besser, and L.H. Rees, Measurement of plasma levels of human corticotrophin releasing factor, 172nd Meeting of the Society for Endocrinology J Endocrinology [Suppl] 107, Abstract 31, 1985.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cunnah, D., D. Jessop, L. Perry, F. Afshar, M. Setchell, and L.H. Rees, Measurement of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of human corticotrophin-releasing factor, 68th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society ,Anaheim, CA, Abstract 649, p. 193, 1986.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cunnah, D., D.S. Jessop, G.M. Besser, and L.H. Rees, Measurement of circulating corticotropin-releasing factor in man, J Endocrinology 113 123–131, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stalla, G.K., J. Hartwimmer, J. Schopohl, K. von Werder, and O.A. Muller, Intravenous application of ovine and human corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) ACTH, Cortisol and CRF-levels, Neuroendocrinology 42 1–5, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stalla, G.K., J. Stalla, J. Schopohl, K. von Werder, and OA. Müller, Corticotropin-releasing factor in human I. CRF stimulation in normals and CRF radioimmunoassay, Hormone Res 24 229–245, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hermus, A.R.M.M., G.F.F.M. Pieters, G.J. Pesman, T.J. Benraad, A.G.H. Smals, and P.W.C. Kloppenborg, CRH as a diagnostic and heuristic tool in hypothalamic-pituitary diseases, In E.F. Pfeiffer, G.M. Reaven, W.D. Hetzel, A.R. Hoffman, and O A. Müller, Hormone and Metabolism Research Supplement Volume 16 ,Theime Medical Publishers, Inc., New York, pp. 68–73, 1987.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Linton, EA., C. McLean, A.C. Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, F.J. Tilders, E.A. Van der Veen, and PJ. Lowry, Direct measurement of human plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone by two-site immunoradiometric assay, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64 1047–1053, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sasaki, A., O. Shinkawa, A.N. Margioris, A.S. Liotta, S. Sato, O. Murakami, M. Go, Y. Shimizu, K. Hanew, and K. Yoshigana, Immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing hormone in human plasma during pregnancy, labour and delivery, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64 224–229, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Suda, T., N. Tomori, F. Tozawa, T. Mouri, H. Demura, and K. Shizume, Distribution and characterization of immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor in human tissues, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 59 861–866, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, A.C., EA. Linton, P.J. Lowry, L.H. Rees, and G.M. Besser, Corticotropin releasing factor immunoreactivity in human gastrointestinal tract, Lancet II 1245–1246, 1982.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, A.C., E.A. Linton, J. Ackland, G.M. Besser, and P.J. Lowry, Heterogenous immunocytochemical reactivities of o CRF-41-like material in the human hypothalamus, pituitary and gastrointestinal tract, Neuroendocrinology 38 212–216, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Petrusz, P., I. Merchanthaller, J.L. Maderdrut, S. Vigh, and A.V. Schally, Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CSF)-like immunoreactivity in the vertebrate endocrine pancreas, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80 1721–1725, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Charlton, B.G., A. Leake, I.N. Ferrier, E.A. Linton, and P.J. Lowry, Corticotrophin-releasing factor in plasma of depressed patients and controls, The Lancet 1 161–162, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Linton, EA., A.C. Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, C.DA. Wolfe, EA. Campbell, and PJ. Lowry, Distribution of immunoreactive CRH in man, Hormone Metab Res [Suppl] 16 38–42, 1987.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shibasaki, T., E. Odagiri, K. Shizume, and N. Ling, Corticotropin-releasing factor-like activity in human placental extract, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55 384–386, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sasaki, A., A.S. Liotta, M.M. Luckey, A.N. Margioris, T. Suda, and D.T. Krieger, Immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor is present in human maternal plasma during the third trimester of pregnancy, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 59 812–814, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stalla, G.K., H. Bost, T. Kaliebe, M. Huber, I. Stalla, D. Pfeiffer, K. von Werder, and OA. Müller, Human placental corticotropin-releasing factor is identical to hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor, Acta Endocrinol [Suppl 274] 111 169–170, 1986.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Campbell, EA., D.M.G. Halpin, J. Price, A. Dornhprst, B. Gillham, and M.T. Jones, Corticotrophin-releasing factor-like material in maternal plasma and venous and arterial cord plasma, Abstract #98, J Endocrinol [Suppl] 104 65,1985.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Campbell, EA., EA. Linton, C.DA. Wolfe, P.R. Scraggs, M.T. Jones, and PJ. Lowry, Plasma corticotrophin-releasing hormone concentrations during pregnancy and parturition, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64 1054–1059, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maser-Gluth, C, U. Lorenz, and P. Vecsei, In pregnancy, corticotropin-releasing-factor in maternal blood and amniotic fluid correlates with gestational age, In E.F. Pfeiffer, G.M. Reaven, W.D. Hetzel, A.R. Hoffman, and O A. Müller, Hormone and Metabolism Research Supplement Volume 16 ,Theime Medical Publishers, Inc., New York, pp. 42–44, 1987.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gordon, Y.B., and T. Chard, The specific proteins of the human placenta some new hypotheses, In A. Klopper and T. Chard (eds) Placental Proteins ,Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1–21, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smith, R., MA.R. Thomson, and W. Cooper, The relationship between changing values of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in late pregnancy and the onset of labour, Placenta 2143–148, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bishof, P., S. Duberg, W. Herrmann, and P.C. Sizonenko, Amniotic fluid and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) throughout pregnancy comparison with other fetoplacental products, Br J Obstet Gynaecol 89 358–363, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Laatikainen, T., T. Virtanen, I. Raisanen, and K. Salminen, Immunoreactive corticotrophin-releasing factor and corticotropin in plasma during pregnancy, labor and Puerperium, Neuropeptides 10343–353, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wolfe, C.D.A., S.P. Patel, E.A. Campbell, E.A. Linton, J. Anderson, P.J. Lowry, and M.T. Jones, Plasma corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in normal pregnancy, Br J Obstet Gynaecol 95 997–1002, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Goland, R.S., S.L. Wardlaw, R.I. Stark, L.S. Brown, Jr. and A.G. Frantz, High levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone immunoactivity in maternal and fetal plasma during pregnancy, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 63 1199–1203, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schürmeyer, T.H., P.C. Avgerinos, P.W. Gold, W.T. Galluci, T.P. Tomai, G.B. Cutler, Jr., D.L. Loriaux, and G.P. Chrousos, Human corticotropin-releasing factor in man pharmacokinetic properties and dose-response of plasma adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol secretion, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 59 1103–1108, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sasaki, A., P. Tempst, A.S. Liotta, A.N. Margioris, L.E. Hood, S.B.H. Kent, S. Sato, O. Shinkawa, K. Yoshinaga, and D.T. Krieger, Isolation and characterization of a corticotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide from human placenta, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67 768–773, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Grino, M., G.P. Chrousos, and A.N. Margioris, The corticotropin releasing hormone gene is expressed in human placenta, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 148 1208–1214, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Saijonmaa, O., T. Laatikainen, and T. Wahlstrom, Corticotrophin-releasing factor in human placenta localisation, concentration and release in vitro, Placenta 9 373–385, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Petraglia, F., P.E. Sawchenko, J. Rivier, and W. Vale, Evidence for local stimulation of ACTH secretion by corticotropin-releasing factor in human placenta, Nature 328 717–719, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Frim, D.M., R.L. Emanuel, B.G. Robinson, C.M. Smas, G.K. Adler, and J. Majzoub, Characterization gestational regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger RNA in human placenta, J Clin Invest 82 287–292, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Usui, T., Y. Nakai, T. Tsukada, H. Jingami, H. Takahashi, J. Fukata, and H. Imura, Expression of adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone precursor gene in placenta and other non-hypothalamic tissues in man, Mole Endocrinol 2 871–875, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Suda, T., M. Iwashita, F. Tozawa, T. Ushiyama, N. Tomori, T. Sumitomo, Y. Nakagami, H. Demura, and K. Shizuma, Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein in human plasma by chemical cross-linking and its binding during pregnancy, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67 1278–1283, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Robinson, B.G., R.L. Emanuel, D.M. Frim, and JA. Majzoub, Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85 5244–5248, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Arbiser, J.L., C.C. Morton, G A.P. Bruns, and J.A. Majzoub, Human corticotrophin releasing hormone gene is located in the long arm of chromosome 8, Cytogenet Cell Genet 47 113–116, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liotta, A.S., G.H. Mulder, and D.T. Krieger, Regulation of secretion of human placental corticotropin releasing factor, 67th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society ,Baltimore, Abstract 10, 1985.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Petraglia, F., S. Sutton, A. Zaccardo, L. Calza, A. Volpe, P. Marrama, L. Giarduno, G. Conkos, P. Sawchenko, A.T.W. Lim, A.R. Genazzani, J. Rivier, and W. Vale, Production of peptide hormones by placental cultures, 8th International Congress of Endocrinology ,Kyoto, Japan, Abstract, p. 24, 1988.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jones, SA., A.N. Brooks, and J.R.G. Challis, Steroids modulate corticotropin-releasing hormone production in human fetal membranes and placenta, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 68 825–830, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Economides, D., E. Linton, K. Nicolaides, C.H. Rodeck, P.J. Lowry, and T. Chard, Relationship between maternal and fetal corticotrophin-releasing hormone -41 and ACTH levels in human midtrimester pregnancy, J Endocrinology 114 497–501, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Carr, B.R., C.R. Parker, J.D. Madden, P.C. MacDonald, and J.C. Porter, Maternal plasma adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol relationships throughout human pregnancy, Am J Obstet Gynecol 139 416–422, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Abou-Samra, A.B., M. Pugeat, H. Dechaud, L. Nachury, B. Bouchareb, M. Ferre-Montagne, and J. Tournaire, Increased plasma concentration of N-terminal ß-lipotrophin and unbound Cortisol during pregnancy, Clin Endocrinol 20 221–228, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wolfe, C.D.A., S.P. Patel, EA. Linton, EA. Campbell, J. Anderson, A. Dornhorst, P.J. Lowry, and M.T. Jones, Plasma corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) in abnormal pregnancy, Br J Obstet Gynaecol 95 1003–1006, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Burke, C.W., and F. Roulet, Increased exposure of tissues to Cortisol in late pregnancy, Br Med J 1 657–659, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rees, L.H., C.W. Burke, T. Chard, S.W. Evans, and A.T. Letchworth, Possible placental origin of ACTH in normal human pregnancy, Nature 254 620–622, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Reisine, T., and H.-U. Affolter, Hormone receptor regulated proopiomelanocortin gene expression, Biochem Pharmacol 36 191–195, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Genazzani, A.R., F. Fraioli, and J. Hurlimann, Immunoreactive ACTH and Cortisol plasma levels during pregnancy detection and partial purification of corticotropin-like placental hormone, human chorionic corticotropin, Clin Endocrinol 4 1–14, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Plotsky, P.M., and P.E. Sawchenko, Hypophysial-portal plasma levels, median eminence content and immunohistochemical staining of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin after pharmacological adrenalectomy, Endocrinology 120 1361–1369, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fink, G., I.CA.F. Robinson, and LA. Tannahill, Effects of adrenalectomy and glucocorticoids on the peptides CRF-41, AVP and oxytocin in rat hypophysial portal blood, J Physiol 401 329–345, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gillies, G.E., E.A. Linton, and P.J. Lowry, Corticotropin releasing activity of the new CRF is potentiated several times by vasopressin, Nature 299 355–357, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schulte, H.M., B. Allolio, D. Weisner, and E.E. Ohnhaus, ACTH and Cortisol secretion in response to synthetic human corticotrophin-releasing hormone in late pregnancy, 8th International Congress of Endocrinology ,Kyoto, Japan, Abstract, p. 82, 1988.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Suda, T., M. Iwashita, T. Ushiyama, F. Tozawa, T. Sumitomo, Y. Nakagami, H. Demura, and K. Shizume, Responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone and its bound and free forms in pregnant and nonpregnant women, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 69 38–42, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Reisine, T., and A. Hoffman, Desensitization of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors, Biochem Biophys Res Comm 111 919–925, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schulte, H.M., G.P. Chrousos, D.L. Healy, P.W. Gold, E.H. Odfield, J.D. Booth, G.B. Cutler, Jr., and D.L. Lorieux, Short-and long-term continuous infusion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in men and nonhuman primates physiologic and clinical implications, The 7th International Congress of Endocrinology ,Quebec City, Canada, Abstract 2268, p. 1394, 1984.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Linton, E.A., and P.J. Lowry, A large molecular weight carrier for CRF-41 in human plasma, J Endocrinol [Suppl] 111, Abstract 150, 1986.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Linton, E.A., CD A. Wolfe, D.P. Behan, and P.J. Lowry, A specific carrier substance for human corticotrophin releasing factor in late gestational maternal plasma which could mask the ACTH-releasing activity, Clin Endocrinol 28 315–324,1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Orth, D.N., and CD. Mount, Specific high-affinity binding protein for human corticotrophin-releasing hormone in normal human plasma, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 143 411–417, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Suda, T., M. Iwashita, F. Tozawa, T. Ushiyama, N. Tomori, T. Sumitomo, Y. Nakagami, H. Demura, and K. Shizume, Secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor in pregnancy, In H. Imura, S. Shizume, and K. Yoshid (eds) Progress in Endocrinology Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Endocrinology, Volume 1 ,Kyoto, Japan, Elsevier Medica, Amsterdam, pp. 401–405, 1988.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rivier, J., J. Spiess, and W. Vale, Characterization of rat hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80 4851–4855, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ellis, M.J., J.H. Livesey, and RA. Donald, Circulating plasma corticotrophin-releasing factor-like immunoreactivity, J Endocrinol 117 299–307, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Behan, D.P., E.A. Linton, and P.J. Lowry, Isolation of the human plasma corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein, JEndocrinol 122 23–31, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gillies, G., and P.J. Lowry, Perfused rat isolated anterior pituitary cell column as bioassay for factor(s) controlling release of adrenocorticotropin validation of a technique, Endocrinology 103521–527,1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vale, W., J. Vaughan, M. Smith, G. Yamamoto, J. Rivier, and C. Rivier, Effects of synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor, glucocorticoids, catecholamines, neurohypophyseal peptides and other substances on cultured corticotropic cells, Endocrinology 113 1121–1131, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Margioris, A.N., M. Grino, P. Protos, P.W. Gold, and G.P. Chrousos, Corticotrophin-releasing hormone and oxytocin stimulate the release of placental proopiomelanocortin peptides, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 66 922–926, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tropper, P.J., R.S. Goland, S.L. Wardlaw, H.E. Fox, and A.G. Frantz, Effects of betamethasone on maternal plasma corticotropin-releasing factor, ACTH and Cortisol during pregnancy, J Perinatal Med 15 221–225, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fencl, M., R J. Stillman, J. Cohen, and D. Tulchinsky, Direct evidence of sudden rise in fetal corticoids late in human gestation, Nature 287 225–266, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. A. Linton
    • 1
  • C. D. A. Wolfe
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. P. Behan
    • 1
  • P. J. Lowry
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry & Physiology School of Animal and Microbial SciencesUniversity of ReadingUK
  2. 2.Department of Community MedicineSt. Thomas’s Hospital Medical SchoolLondonUK

Personalised recommendations