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Immunoneurology: A Serum Protein Afferent Limb to the CNS

  • Gerald P. Kozlowski
  • Gajanan Nilaver
  • Berislav V. Zlokovič
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 274)

Abstract

The burgeoning field of neuroimmunology currently emphasizes a brain-immune link represented by hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, cytokines (1) and other substances of the CNS which are shared in common with the immune system and can act either directly or indirectly on components of the immune system or their target tissues. This concept essentially depicts the CNS as having an efferent outflow of active principles to a variety of peripheral structures. Another concept of potential importance in the maintenance of a homeostatic brain-immune interaction is that of immunoneurology, whereby principles derived from peripheral sources feed back onto the CNS. In this sense, immune cells, their products and other related substances can be transported from their source via the blood stream to the CNS wherein they may access the internal milieu and can, therefore, be considered afferent to the CNS. This review describes studies on transport of immunogammaglobulins (IgG) and albumins into the CNS of rat, rabbit and guinea pig using several techniques: immunocytochemistry (ICC), colchicine administration, active immunization, induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), radioisotope labeling, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), rocket Immunoelectrophoresis and an in situ vascular brain perfusion method. Results from these studies reveal that serum albumin and globulin can enter the brain via several routes including that of active neuronal uptake by nerve endings, and subsequent transport to their cell bodies of origin via retrograde transport. These compounds may also enter the brain at circumventricular regions wherein functional leaks occur. Finally, there appears to be a saturable transport mechanism for IgG that is used to traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and gain direct entry into the CNS.

Keywords

Multiple Sclerosis Purkinje Cell Myelin Basic Protein Measle Virus Experimental Allergic Encephalitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald P. Kozlowski
    • 1
  • Gajanan Nilaver
    • 1
  • Berislav V. Zlokovič
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

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