Can Kindling-Induced Sleep Pathology be Corrected by Phenobarbital?
Kindled seizure susceptibility, as indicated by the incidence of interictal discharge (IID) and the development of kindled convulsion with an ‘all-or-none’ response to threshold stimulation, is known to persist in amygdaloid (AM) kindled cats for more than 12-months without applying stimulation.1 Many antiepileptic drugs such as Phenobarbital (PB), Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Valproic Acid and Primidone have been shown to exert either a prophylactic effect on kindling or an anticonvulsive effect on established kindled seizure.2–8 However, the question of whether medication with these drugs can reverse the once established kindled seizure susceptibility remains unanswered.
KeywordsTotal Sleep Time Slow Wave Sleep Seizure Susceptibility Sleep Recording Polygraphic Recording
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.J. A. Wada, T. Osawa, M. Sato, A. Wake, M. E. Corcoran, and A. S. Troupin, Acute anticonvulsant effects of Diphenylhydantoin, Phenobarbital and Carbamazepine: a combined electro-clinical and serum level study in amygdaloid kindled cats and baboons. Epilepsia, 17: 77–88 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.J. A. Wada, Kindling, antiepileptic drugs, seizure susceptibility and a warning. In: “Epilepsy updated: causes and treatment,” P. Robb, ed., Miami, Symposia Specialists Inc. (1980).Google Scholar
- 7.N. Kakegawa, An experimental study on the modes of appearance and disappearance of suppressive effect of antiepileptic drugs on kindled seizure. Psychiat. Neurol. Jpn., 88: 81–98 (in Japanese) (1986).Google Scholar
- 8.T. Hiyoshi, S. Suzuki, K. Yagi, and M. Seino, On the anticonvulsive effect of Primidone: an experimental study through overkindling of cat. Jpn. J. Psychiat. Neurol., 40: 505–506 (1986).Google Scholar
- 14.M. Sato and T. Nakashima, Kindling: Secondary epileptogenesis, sleep and catecholamines. Can. J. Neurol. Sc., 2: 439–446 (1975).Google Scholar
- 15.R. Kawahara and J. A. Wada, Effect of REM sleep deprivation on amygdaloid kindling in cats. Jpn. J. EEG/EMG., 11: 176–184 (in Japanese) (1983).Google Scholar
- 18.R. Kawahara, I. Okubo, T. Tanaka, H. Takeshita, and T. Inomaru, The effect of three anticonvulsants on REM sleep and generalized seizure in amygdaloid-kindled cats. Jpn. J. EEG/EMG., 15: 273–281 (in Japanese) (1987).Google Scholar
- 21.T. Hiyoshi and J. A. Wada, Feline amygdaloid kindling and sleep-waking pattern: observation on daily 22-hour polygraphic recording. Epilepsia, (in press).Google Scholar
- 22.T. Hiyoshi and J. A. Wada, Nine-month phenobarbital administration failed to reverse amygdaloid kindled seizure susceptibility in cats (submitted).Google Scholar
- 23.R. Ursin and M. B. Sterman, “A manual for recording and scoring of sleep and waking stages in the adult cat.” Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles (1981).Google Scholar
- 32.W. Dement, P. Henry, H. Cohen and J. Ferguson, Studies on the effect of REM deprivation in humans and in animals. Res. Publ. Ass. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 45: 456–468 (1967).Google Scholar