Advertisement

Non-Starch Polysaccharides (Dietary Fiber) and Resistant Starch

  • Hans N. Englyst
  • John H. Cummings
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 270)

Abstract

Progress in dietary fiber research has been slow because of the lack of an agreed definition of fiber, and the development of different techniques for its measurement. Two main methods have emerged which, by adopting contrasting approaches, include different components of the diet as dietary fiber.

Keywords

Dietary Fiber Resistant Starch Total Dietary Fiber Soluble Dietary Fiber Maillard Reaction Product 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asp, N-G., and Johansson, C-G., 1981, Techniques for measuring dietary fiber; principal aims of methods and a comparison of results obtained by different techniques. In: The Analysis of Dietary Fiber in Food (James, W.P.T., and Theander, O., Eds.). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York,pp.173-189.Google Scholar
  2. Asp, N-G., and Johansson, C-G., 1984, Dietary fibre analysis. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. Clin. Nutr., 54: 735–752.Google Scholar
  3. Asp, N-G., Johansson, C-G., Hallmer, H., and Siljestrom, M., 1983, Rapid enzymatic assay of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber. J. Agric. Food Chem., 31: 476-482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burkitt, D.P., 1969, Related disease — related cause. Lancet, 2: 1229-1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cummings, J.H., 1980, Some aspects of dietary fibre metabolism in the human gut. In: Food and Health Science and Technology (ed. Birch, G.A.). Applied Science Publishers, London, pp.441-458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cummings, J.H., and Englyst, H.N., 1987, Fermentation in the human large intestine and the available substrates. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 45: 1243-1255.Google Scholar
  7. Cummings, J.H., and Englyst, H.N., 1990, Starch fermentation in the human large intestine. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (in press).Google Scholar
  8. Cummings, J.H., Englyst, H.N., and Wood, R., 1985, Determination of dietary fibre in cereals and cereal products — collaborative trials. Part I: Initial trial. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 23: 1–35Google Scholar
  9. Cummings, J.H., Pomare, E.W., Branch, W.J., Naylor, C.P.E., and Macfarlane, G.T., 1987, Short chain fatty acids in human large intestine, portal, hepatic and venous blood. Gut, 28: 1221–1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deelstra, H., Van Dael, P., Van Cauwenbergh, R., Englyst, H.N., and Cummings, J.H., 1989, Determination of dietary fiber in total diets. A comparison of the AOAC and the Englyst method. Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Food Chemistry, Versailles, France, pp. 137–141.Google Scholar
  11. Dunaif, G., and Schneeman, B.O., 1981, The effect of dietary fiber on human pancreatic activity in vitro. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 34: 1034–1035.]Google Scholar
  12. Dysseler, P., 1988, Impact of heat treatment on dietary fibre values. Paper presented to the EC Meeting on Dietary Fibre: Definition and Methods of Analysis, Cambridge, UK, September 1988.Google Scholar
  13. Englyst, H., 1981, Determination of carbohydrate and its composition in plant materials. In: The Analysis of Dietary Fiber in Food (James, W.P.T., and Theander, O., Eds.). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 71–93.Google Scholar
  14. Englyst, H.J.N., 1985, “Dietary polysaccharide breakdown in the gut of man,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  15. Englyst, H.N., and Cummings, J.H., 1984, Simplified method for the measurement of total non-starch polysaccharides by gas-liquid chromatography of constituent sugars as alditol acetates. Analyst, 109: 937–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Englyst, H.N., and Cummings, J.H., 1985, Digestion of the polysaccharides of some cereal foods in the human small intestine. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 42: 778–787.Google Scholar
  17. Englyst, H.N., and Cummings, J.H., 1986, Digestion of the carbohydrates of banana (Musa paradisiaca sapientum) in the human small intestine. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 44: 42–50.Google Scholar
  18. Englyst, H.N., and Cummings, J.H., 1987, Digestion of polysaccharides of potato in the small intestine of man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 45: 423–431.Google Scholar
  19. Englyst, H.N., and Cummings, J.H., 1988, An improved method for the measurement of dietary fibre as the non-starch polysaccharides in plant foods. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 71: 808–814.Google Scholar
  20. Englyst, H.N., and Hudson, G.J., 1987, Colorimetric method for routine measurement of dietary fibre as non-starch polysaccharides. A comparison with gas-liquid chromatography. Food Chemistry, 24: 63–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Englyst, H.N., Bingham, S.A., Runswick, S.A., Collinson, E., and Cummings, J.H., 1988, Dietary fibre (non-starch polysaccharides) in fruit, vegetables and nuts. J. Hum. Nutr. Dietet., 1: 247–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Englyst, H.N., Bingham, S.A., Runswick, S.A., Collinson, E., and Cummings, J.H., 1989, Dietary fibre (non-starch polysaccharides) in cereal products. J. Hum. Nutr. Dietet., 2: 253–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Englyst, H.N., Cummings, J.H., and Wood, R., 1987a, Determination of dietary fibre in cereals and cereal products — collaborative trials. Part II: Studies of a modified Englyst procedure. J. Assoc. Publ. Analysts, 25: 59–71.Google Scholar
  24. Englyst, H.N., Cummings, J.H., and Wood, R., 1987b, Determination of dietary fibre in cereals and cereal products — collaborative trials. III. Study of further simplified procedures. J. Assoc. Publ. Analysts, 25: 73–110.Google Scholar
  25. Englyst, H.N., Hay, S., and Macfarlane, G.T., 1987c, Polysaccharide breakdown by mixed populations of human faecal bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 95: 163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Englyst, H.N., Quigley, M., Hudson, G.J., and Cummings, J.H., 1990, Measurement of non-starch polysaccharides (dietary fibre) by GLC, HPLC and colorimetry. (in press).Google Scholar
  27. Englyst, H.N., Trowell, H.W., Southgate, D.A.T., and Cummings, J.H., 1987d, Dietary fiber and resistant starch. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 46: 873–874.Google Scholar
  28. Englyst, H., Wiggins, H.S., and Cummings, J.H., 1982, Determination of the non-starch polysaccharides in plant foods by gas-liquid chromatography of constituent sugars as alditol acetates. Analyst, 107: 307–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fordtran, J.S. and Locklear, T.W., 1966, Ionic constituents and osmolality of gastric and small intestinal fluids after eating. Am. J. Dig. Dis., 11: 503–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Furda, I., 1981, Simultaneous analysis of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. In: The Analysis of Dietary Fiber in Food (James, W.P.T., and Theander, O., Eds.). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 163–172.Google Scholar
  31. Fuwa, H., Takaya, T., and Sugimoto, Y., 1980, Degradation of various starch granules by amylases. In: Mechanisms of Saccharide Polymerization and Depolymerization (Marshall, J.J., ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp.Google Scholar
  32. Gidley, M.J., 1987, Factors affecting the crystalline type (A-C) of native starches and model compounds: a rationalisation of observed effects in terms of polymorphic structures. Carbohydrate Res., 161: 301–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hansen, I., and Englyst, H.N., 1988, Dietary fibre in some Scandinavian breads. Naringsforskning Arg. 32: 108–112.Google Scholar
  34. Heaton, K.W., Marcus, S.N., Emmett, P.M., and Bilton, C.H., 1988, Particle size of wheat, maize and oat test meals: effects on plasma glucose and insulin responses and on the rate of starch digestion in vitro. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 47: 675–682.Google Scholar
  35. Hermansen, K., Rasmussen, O., Arnfred, J., Winther, E., and Schmitz, O., 1986, Differential glycaemic effects of potato, rice and spaghetti in Type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetic patients at constant insulinaemia. Diabetalogia, 29: 358–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hipsley, E.H., 1953, Dietary ‘fibre’ and pregnancy toxaemia. Br. Med. J., 2: 420–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hizukuri, S., 1985, Relationship between the distribution of the chain length of amylopectin and the crystalline structure of starch granules. Carbohydrate Res., 141: 295–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holm, J., Bjorck, I., Ostrowska, S., Eliasson, A-C., Asp, N-G., Larsson, K., and Lundquist, I., 1983, Digestibility of amylose-lipid complexes in-vitro and in-vivo. Starch/Starke 35: 294–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jacobsen, J.S., and Leth, T., 1987, Overvagningssystem for neringsstoffer, brod og cerealier. Centrallaboratoriets afdeling A/Aalborg Landsdelslaboratorium Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen Publication No. 14.Google Scholar
  40. Johansson, C-G., Siljestrom, M., and Asp, N-G., 1984, Dietary fibre in bread and corresponding flours — formation of resistant starch during baking. Z. Lebensm. Unters Forsch., 179: 24–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Katz, J.R., 1934, X-ray investigation of gelatinization and retrogradation of starch and its importance for bread research. Bakers Weekly, 81: 34–37.Google Scholar
  42. Katz, J.R., 1937, The amorphous part of starch in fresh bread, and in fresh pastes and solutions of starch. Recl. Trav. chim. Pays-Bas Belg., 18: 55–59.Google Scholar
  43. Macfarlane, G.T., and Englyst, H.N., 1986, Starch utilization by the human large intestinal microflora. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 60: 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nyman, M., Palsson, K-E., and Asp, N-G., 1987, Effects of processing on dietary fibre in vegetables. Lebensm. Wiss. u. Technol., 20: 29–36.Google Scholar
  45. Prosky, L., Asp, N-G., Furda, I., Devries, J.W., Schweizer, T.F., and Harland, B.F., 1984, Determination of total dietary fiber in foods, food products and total diets: interlaboratory study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 67: 1044–1052.Google Scholar
  46. Prosky, L., Asp, N-G., Furda, I., Devries, J.W., Schweizer, T.F., and Harland, B.F., 1985, Determination of total dietary fiber in foods and food products: collaborative study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 68: 677–679.Google Scholar
  47. Prosky, L., Asp, N-G., Schweizer, T.F., Devries, J.W., and Furda, I., 1988, Determination of insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber in foods and food products: interlaboratory study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 71: 1017-Google Scholar
  48. Ranhotra, G. and Gelroth, J., 1988a, Soluble and total dietary fiber in white bread. Cereal Chem., 65: 155–156.Google Scholar
  49. Ranhotra, G. and Gelroth, J., 1988b, Soluble and insoluble fiber in soda crackers. Cereal Chem., 65: 159–160.Google Scholar
  50. Ring, S.G., Colonna, P., I’Anson, K.J., Kalichevsky, M.T., Miles, M.J., Morris, V.J., and Orford, P.D., 1987, The gelation and crystallisation of amylopectin. Carbohydrate Res., 162: 277–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Robertson, J.B., and Van Soest, P.J., 1977, 69th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  52. Schweizer, T.F., and Wursch, P., 1979, Analysis of dietary fibre. J. Sci. Food Agric., 30: 613–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shainkin, R., and Birk, Y., 1970, α-Amylase inhibitors from wheat. Isolation and characterization. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 221: 502–513.Google Scholar
  54. Sievert, D. and Pomeranz, Y., 1989, Enzyme-resistant starch. I. Characterization and evaluation by enzymatic, thermoanalytical and microscopic methods. Cereal Chem., 66: 342–347.Google Scholar
  55. Southgate, D.A.T., 1969, Determination of carbohydrates in foods. II. Unavailable carbohydrates. J. Sci. Food. Agric., 20: 331–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Southgate, D.A.T., 1980, What is dietary fibre? Food Technol. N.Z., 15: 7–9.Google Scholar
  57. Sterling, C., 1978, Textural qualities and molecular structure of starch products. J. Texture Studies 9: 225–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Trowell, H., 1972, Ischaemic heart disease and dietary fibre. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 25: 926–932.Google Scholar
  59. Trowell, H., 1985, Dietary fibre; a paradigm. In: Dietary Fibre, Fibre-Depleted Foods and Disease (Trowell, H.W., Burkitt, D., and Heaton, K.W., Eds.). Academic Press, London, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  60. Wolever, T.M.S., Jenkins, D.J.A., Kalmusky, J., Jenkins, A., Giordano, C., Giudici, S., Josse, R.G., and Wong, G.S., 1986, Comparison of regular and parboiled rices: explanation of discrepancies between reported glycemie responses to rice. Nutrition Research, 6: 349–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wu, H-C., and Sarko, A., 1978a, The double-helical molecular structure of B-amylose. Carbohydrate Res., 61: 7–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wu, H-C., and Sarko, A., 1978b, The double-helical molecular structure of crystalline A-amylose. Carbohydrate Res., 61: 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. #.
    Wursch, P., Del Vedovo, S., and Koellreutter, B., 1986, Cell structure and starch nature as key determinants of the digestion rate of starch in legume. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 43: 25–29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans N. Englyst
    • 1
  • John H. Cummings
    • 1
  1. 1.MRC Dunn Clinical Nutrition CentreCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations