Physicochemical Properties and Physiological Effects of the (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-Glucan from Oats

  • Peter J. Wood
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 270)


Oats have a a strong traditional reputation as a nutritious cereal. Reports of the benefits of oatmeal in management of diabetes, and clinical evidence for the value of oatmeal in lowering serum cholesterol appeared as long ago as 1913 and 1963 respectively (Allen, 1913; deGroot 1963). Today’s feverish commercial activity in oat products is a consequence of the newly developed concern amongst consumers of the relationship between diet and health, and more particularly epidemiologically based evidence that the normal diet of the Western developed societies is deficient in dietary fiber (Burkitt and Trowel 1, 1975). Animal and clinical studies indicating the specific value of soluble dietary fiber in regulation of glucose metabolism and reduction of serum cholesterol levels have particularly stimulated public interest in oat bran (Anderson and Chen, 1979; Roehrig, 1988).


Shear Rate Dietary Fiber Glycemic Index Soluble Fiber Soluble Dietary Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, F.M., 1913, “Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes”, W.M. Leonard, Boston, MS.Google Scholar
  2. Aman, O. and Graham, H., 1987, Analysis of total and insoluble mixedlinked (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-glucans in barley and oats, J. Agric. Food Chem. 35:704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J.W. and Chen, W-J.L., 1979, Plant fiber. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 32:346.Google Scholar
  4. Bégin, F., Vachon, C., Jones, J.D., Wood, P.J. and Savoie, L., 1989, Effect of dietary fibers on glycemia and on gastrointestinal function in rats, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., in press.Google Scholar
  5. Braaten, J.T., Wood, P.J., Scott, F.W., Brulé, D., Riedel, D. and Poste, L.M., 1988a, High beta glucan oat gum, a soluble fiber which lowers glucose and insulin after an oral glucose load: comparison with guar gum, Fed. Amer. Soc. Expt. Biol. 72nd Annual Meeting, p. 198, No. 5257.Google Scholar
  6. Braaten, J.T., Wood, P.J., Scott, F.W., Riedel, D., Brulé, D., Collins, M. and Poste, L.M., 1988b, Effect of oat gum and oat bran on glucoregulation in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals, Diabetes, 37 (Suppl.1):214A.Google Scholar
  7. Burkitt, D.P. and Trowel L, H.C., 1975, “Refined Carbohydrate Food and Disease: Some Implications of Dietary Fibre”, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  8. Burrows, V.D. Fulcher, R.G. and Paton, D., 1984, Processing aqueous treated cereals, U.S. Patent 4,345,429.Google Scholar
  9. Edwards, C.A., Blackburn, N.A., Craigen, L., Davison, P., Tomlin, J., Sugden, K., Johnson, I.T. and Read, N.W., 1987, Viscosity of food gums determined in vitro related to their hypoglycemic actions, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 46:72.Google Scholar
  10. deGroot, A.P., Luyken, R. and Pikaar, N.A., 1963, Cholesterol lowering effect of rolled oats, Lancet 2:303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farr, D.T., 1987, Consumer attitudes and the supermarket, Cereal Foods World, 32:413.Google Scholar
  12. Fulcher, R.G. and Wood, P.J., 1983, Identification of cereal carbohydrates by fluorescence microscopy, in: “New Frontiers in Food Microstructure”, D.B. Bechtel, ed., Amer. Assoc. Cereal Chem., St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  13. Jenkins, D.J.A., Wolever, T.M.S., Leeds, A.R., Gassull, M.A., Haisman, P., Dilawari, J., Goff, D.V., Metz, G.L. and Alberti, K.G.M.M., 1978, Dietary fibres, fibre analogues, and glucose tolerance: importance of viscosity, Brit. Med. J., 1:1392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jenkins, D.J.A., Wolever, T.M.S., Taylor, R.H., Barker, H., Fielden, H., Baldwin, J.M., Bowling, A.C., Newman, H.C., Jenkins, A.L. and Goff, D.V., 1981, Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 34:362.Google Scholar
  15. Joergensen, K.G., 1988, Quantification of high molecular weight (1→3)-(l→4)-β-D-glucan using calcofluor complex formation and flow injection analysis, Analytical principal and its standardisation, Carlsberg Res. Commun., 53:277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Johnson, I.T. and Gee, J.M., 1982, Influence of viscous incubation media on the resistance to diffusion of the intestinal unstirred water layer in vitro, Pflügers Archiv., 393:139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lund, E.K., Gee, J.M., Brown, J.C., Wood, P.J. and Johnson, I.T., 1989, Effect of oat gum on the physicochemical properties of the gastrointestinal contents and on the uptake of D-galactose and cholesterol by rat small intestine in vitro, Brit. J_. Nutr., 62:91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McCleary, B.V. and Glennie-Holmes, M., 1985, Enzymic quantification of (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-glucan in barley and malt, J. Inst. Brew., 91:285Google Scholar
  19. Mongeau, R. and Brassard, R., 1986, A rapid method for the determination of soluble and insoluble dietary fibre: comparison with AOAC total dietary fibre procedure and Englyst’s method, J,. Food Sci., 51:1333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Roehrig, K., 1988, The physiological effects of dietary fiber — a review, Food Hydrocolloids, 2:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vachon, C., Jones, J.D., Wood, P.J. and Savoie, L., 1988, Concentration effect of soluble dietary fibers on postprandial glucose and insulin in the rat, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 66:801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wood, P.J., 1986, Oat β-glucan: structure, location and properties, in: “Oats: Chemistry and Technology”, F.H. Webster, ed., Amer. Assoc. Cereal Chem, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  23. Wood, P.J., Siddiqui, I.R. and Paton, D., 1978, Extraction of high viscosity gum from oats, Cereal Chem., 55:1038.Google Scholar
  24. Wood, P.J., Weisz, J., Fedec, P. and Burrows, V.D., 1989, Large scale preparation and properties of oat fractions enriched in (1→3)-(1→4)-β-D-glucan, Cereal Chem., 66:97.Google Scholar
  25. Wood, P.J., Anderson, J.W., Braaten, J.T., Cave, N.A., Scott, F.W. and Vachon, C., 1989a, Physiological effects of β-D-glucan rich fractions from oats, Cereal Foods World, 34:878.Google Scholar
  26. Wood, P.J., Braaten, J.T., Scott, F.W., Riedel, D. and Poste, L.M., 1990, Comparisons of viscous properties of oat and guar gum and the effects of these and oat bran on glycemic index, J. Agric. Food Chem., accepted for publication.Google Scholar
  27. Yiu, S.H., Wood, P.J. and Weisz, J., 1987, Effects of cooking on starch and β-glucan of rolled oats, Cereal Chem., 64:373.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter J. Wood
    • 1
  1. 1.Food Research CentreAgriculture CanadaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations