External Precepts and Internal Views: The Dialectic of Reciprocal Learning in Third World Urban Planning

  • Mohammad A. Qadeer
Part of the Urban Innovation Abroad book series (UIA)


There is a floodtide of concepts, models, theories, and proposals about Third World (TW hereon) urban development. These ideas come from both ideological streams, namely the left and the right. By and large, they have one common feature: they are essentially of external origins. This floodtide has submerged the indigenous views about urban development. Chinese, Indian, or Mexican experiences of urban life and ways of dealing with problems of cities remain largely unarticulated. There is a notable imbalance between indigenous and imported viewpoints. This disparity is the focus of this chapter. What are the patterns of relationship between external and internal views? How do external views dominate and what are the social and intellectual consequences of this domination? How can the balance between the two sets of views be restored in a reciprocal learning perspective?


Urban Development Informal Sector External View Internal View Urban Problem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad A. Qadeer
    • 1
  1. 1.Queen’s UniversityUK

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