Tensile Overload and Stress Intensity Shielding Investigations by Ultrasound
Growth of a fatigue crack is modified according to the development of contacts between the crack faces [1,2] creating shielding, thus canceling a portion of the crack driving force. These contacts develop through a number of mechanisms, including plastic deformation, sliding of the faces with respect to each other and the collection of debris such as oxide particles . Compressive stresses are created on either side of the partially contacting crack faces resulting in opening loads that must be overcome in order to apply a driving force at the crack tip. In this way, the crack tip is shielded from a portion of the applied load, thus creating the need for modification  of the applied stress intensity range from ΔK = KImax − KImin to ΔKeff = KImax − KIsh. Determination of the contact size and density in the region of closure from ultrasonic transmission and diffraction experiments  has allowed estimation of the magnitude of Kish on a crack grown under constant ΔK conditions. The calculation has since  been extended to fatigue cracks grown with a tensile overload block. The calculation was also successful in predicting the growth rate of the crack after reinitiation had occurred. This paper reports the further extension to the effects of a variable ΔK on fatigue crack growth. In addition, this paper presents preliminary results on detection of the tightly closed crack extension present during the growth retardation period after application of a tensile overload as well as an observation of the crack surface during reinitiation of growth that presents some interesting questions.
KeywordsFatigue Crack Fatigue Crack Growth Crack Opening Displacement Acoustic Response Paris Regime
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