Plant Aging pp 67-74 | Cite as

Special Problems and Prospects in the Propagation of Woody Species

  • Trevor A. Thorpe
  • Indra S. Harry
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 186)


Woody plants represent a vast array of types relative to their taxonomy or use and include both angiosperms and gymnosperms. In general, these are more difficult to propagate asexually than herbaceous species, which in part is related to the phase change from juvenility to maturation that most of them undergo. Thus, with few exceptions, methods for the large-scale regeneration of true-to-type clones are limited. This is particularly true for forest trees, the woody plants discussed in this article.


Somatic Embryogenesis Clonal Propagation Genetic Gain Globe Artichoke Somatic Cell Genetic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abo El-Nil, M. M., 1982, Method for asexual reproduction of coniferous trees, U.S. Patent No. 4,353,184.Google Scholar
  2. Amerson, H. V., Frampton Jr., L. J., Mott, R. L., and Spaine, P. C., 1988, Tissue culture of conifers using loblolly pine as a model, in: “Genetic Manipulation of Woody Plants,” J. W. Hanover and D. E. Keathley, eds., Plenum Publishing, New York, pp. 117–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonga, J. M., 1987, Clonal propagation of mature trees: Problems and possible solutions, in: “Cell and Tissue Culture in Forestry,” J. M. Bonga and D. J. Durzan, eds., Martinus Nijhoff Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 249–271.Google Scholar
  4. Bornman, C. H., and Vogelmann, T. C., 1984, Effect of rigidity of gel medium on benzyladenine-induced adventitious bud formation and vitrification in Picea abies, Physiol. Plant., 61:505–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boulay, M., 1985, Some practical aspects and applications of the micropropagation of forest trees, in: “In vitro Propagation of Forest Tree Species,” Proceedings of the International Symposium, Bologna, Italy, May 1984, pp. 51–81.Google Scholar
  6. Brackpool, A. L., Branton, R. L., and Blake, J., 1986, Regeneration in palms, in: “Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants,” I. K. Vasil, ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 207–222.Google Scholar
  7. Carson, M. J., 1986, Advantages of clonal forestry for Pinus radiata — real or imagined?, New Zealand J. For. Sci., 16:403–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daguin, F., and Letouzé, 1986, Ammonium-induced vitrification in cultured tissues, Physiol. Plant., 66:94–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. DeBergh, P., Harbaoui, Y., and Lemeur, R., 1981, Mass propagation of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus): Evaluation of different hypotheses to overcome vitrification with special reference to water potential, Physiol. Plant., 53:181–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dunstan, D. I., Mohammed, G. H., and Thorpe, T. A., 1986, Shoot production and elongation on expiants from vegetative buds excised from 17 to 20 year-old Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, New Zealand J. For. Sci., 16: 269–282.Google Scholar
  11. Dunstan, D. I., and Thorpe, T. A., 1986, Regeneration in forest trees, in: “Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics in Plants,” Vol. 3, I. K. Vasil, ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 223–241.Google Scholar
  12. Durzan, D. J., and Lopushanski, S. M., 1975, Propagation of American elm via cell suspension cultures, Can. J. For. Res., 5:273–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Franclet, A., Boulay, M., Bekkaoui, F., Foret, Y., Verschoore-Martouzet, B., and Walker, N., 1987, in: “Cell and Tissue Culture in Forestry,” Vol. 1, J. M. Bonga and D. J. Durzan, eds., Martinus Nijhoff Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 232–248.Google Scholar
  14. Fugita, N. 1989. Application of robotics to micropropagation system. In Vitro 25: Abstr. 47, p. 22A.Google Scholar
  15. Gaspar, Th., Kevers, C., DeBergh, P., Maene, L., Paques, M., and Boxus, Ph., 1987, Vitrification: Morphological, physiological and ecological aspects, in: “Cell and Tissue Culture in Forestry,” Vol. 1, J. M. Bonga and D. J. Durzan, eds., Martinus Nijhoff Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 152–167.Google Scholar
  16. George, E. F., and Sherrington, P. D., 1984, “Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture,” Exegetics Ltd., England.Google Scholar
  17. Haissig, B. E., Nelson, N. D., and Kidd, G. H., 1987, Trends in the use of tissue culture in forest improvement, Bio/Tech., 5:52–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hakman, R., Fowke, L. C., von Arnold, S., and Eriksson, T., 1985, The development of somatic embryos in tissues initiated from immature embryos of Picea abies (Norway spruce), Plant Sci. Lett., 38:53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hasnain, S., and Cheliak, W., 1986, Tissue culture in forestry: Economic and genetic potential, For. Chron., 82:219–225.Google Scholar
  20. Hasnain, S., Pigeon, R., and Overend, P. P., 1986, Economic analysis of the use of tissue culture for rapid forest improvement, For. Chron., 82: 240–245.Google Scholar
  21. Kevers, C., and Gaspar, Th., 1985, Vitrification of carnation in vitro: changes in ethylene production, ACC level and capacity to convert ACC to ethylene, Plant Cell Tissue Org. Cult., 4:215–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kleinschmidt, J., 1974, A programme for large-scale cutting propagation of Norway spruce, New Zealand J. For. Sci., 4:359–366.Google Scholar
  23. Kumar, P. P., Reid, D. M., and Thorpe, T. A., 1987, The role of ethylene and carbon dioxide in differentiation of shoot buds in excised cotyledons of Pinus radiata in vitro, Physiol. Plant., 69: 244–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Levin, R., Gaba, V., Tal, B., Hirsch, S., De-Nola, D., and Vasil, I. K., 1988, Automated plant tissue culture for mass propagation, Bio/Tech., 6:1035–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Libby, W. J., Brown, A. G., and Fielding, J. M., 1972, Effects of hedging radiata pine on production, rooting and early growth of cuttings, New Zealand J. For. Sci., 2:263–283.Google Scholar
  26. McKeand, S. E., 1985, Expression of mature characteristics by tissue culture plantlets derived from embryos of loblolly pine, J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci., 110:619–623.Google Scholar
  27. McKeand, S. E., and Allen, H. L., 1984, Nutritional and root development factors affecting growth of tissue culture plantlets of loblolly pine, Physiol. Plant., 61:523–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Miles, G.E. 1989. Robotic transplanting for tissue culture. InVitro 25: Abstr. 46, p. 22A.Google Scholar
  29. Murashige, T., 1978, The impact of tissue culture on agriculture, in: “Frontiers of Plant Tissue Culture,” T. A. Thorpe, ed., Univ. of Calgary Printing Services, Calgary, pp. 15–26.Google Scholar
  30. Pierik, R. L. M., 1987, “In vitro Culture of Higher Plants,” Martinus Nijhoff Publ., Dordrecht.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ritchie, G. A., and Long, A. J., 1986, Field performance of micropropagated Douglas fir, New Zealand J. For. Sci., 16:343–356.Google Scholar
  32. Smith, D.R., 1986, Forest and nut trees. I. Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). in: “Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry”, Vol. 1: Trees, Y.P.S. Bajaj, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 274–291.Google Scholar
  33. Sommer, H.E., Brown, C.L., and Kormanik, P.D., 1975, Differentiation of plantlets in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) tissue cultured in vitro. Bot. Gaz., 136: 196–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Thomas, D., and Murashige, T., 1979, Volatile emissions of plant tissue cultures. I. Identification of the major components, In Vitro, 15:654–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thorpe, T. A., and Biondi, S., 1984, Conifers, in: “Handbook of Plant Cell Culture,” Vol. 2, W. R. Sharp, D. A. Evans, P. V. Ammirato and Y. Yamada, eds., Macmillan, New York, pp. 435–470.Google Scholar
  36. Thorpe, T. A., and Hasnain, S., 1988, Micropropagation of conifers: Methods, opportunities and costs, in: “Tree Improvement — Progressing Together,” Proceedings 21st meeting of the Canadian Tree Improvement Association, Truro, NS, Aug. 1987, E. K. Morgenstern and J. B. Boyle, eds., Can. For. Serv., Ontario, pp. 68–84.Google Scholar
  37. Timmis, R., Abo El-Nil, M. M., and Stonecypher, R. W., 1987, Potential genetic gain through tissue culture, in: “Tissue Culture in Forestry,” J. M. Bonga and D. J. Durzan, eds., Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp. 198–215.Google Scholar
  38. Waxier, M. S., and van Buijtenen, J. P., 1981, Early genetic evaluation of loblolly pine, Can. J. For. Res., 11:351–355.Google Scholar
  39. Winton, L. L., 1970, Shoot and tree production from aspen tissue cultures, Am. J. Bot., 57:904–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Young, P. M., Hutchins, A. S., and Canfield, M. L., 1984, Use of antibiotics to control bacteria in shoot cultures of woody plants, Plant Sci. Lett., 34:203–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zimmerman, R. H., 1986, Regeneration in woody ornamentals and fruit trees, in: “Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants,” Vol. 3, I. K. Vasil, ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 243–258.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trevor A. Thorpe
    • 1
  • Indra S. Harry
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Physiology Research Group, Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations