Functional Analysis of the Promoter Region of the Gene Encoding Chicken Calbindin D28K

  • Stefano Ferrari
  • Renata Battini
  • Wesley J. Pike
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 269)


Vitamin D controls the expression of many genes, among which are those encoding osteocalcin (Price and Baukol, 1980), collagen type I (Kream et al., 1986), matrix Gla protein (Fraser et al., 1988), parathyroid hormone (Okazaki et al., 1988), c myc (Simpson et al., 1987), and a family of calcium-binding proteins termed calbindins. At least two types of calbindins exist: a M 9,000 protein (Calbindin D9K), present in mammalian intestine (Kallfelz et al., 1967), placenta (Bruns et al., 1978), yolk sac (Bruns et al., 1986), and a larger Mr 28,000 protein (calbindin D28K) identified in avian intestine (Wasserman and Taylor, 1966) and many other tissues (Christakos and Norman, 1980). Subsequent studies have shown that mam malian kidney (Pansini et al., 1984), brain (Jande et al., 1981) and other tissues (Norman et al., 1982) also express a Mr 28,000 protein which is immunologically similar but not identical to the avian Calbindin D28K. 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3], the hormonally active form of vitamin D, has been shown to regulate the levels of avian intestinal calbindin D28K from undetectable in vitamin D deficient chickens, to up to 13% of the cytoplasmic protein of the intestinal cell (Christakos et al., 1979). This hormonal induction by 1,25(OH)2D3 is mediated through a high affinity soluble receptor protein (Pike et al., 1987) in a manner analogous to other steroid hormone systems. It is therefore hypothesized that following hormone receptor binding, this complex interacts with a cis acting element in the promoter region of the calbindin D28K gene and regulates transcription of the corresponding mRNA.


Guanidinium Hydrochloride Calbindin D28K Chick Kidney Gammacarboxyglutamic Acid Chick Kidney Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bruns, M.E.H., Fausto, A., and Avioli, L.V., 1978, Placental calcium-binding protein in rats, J. Biol. Chem., 253:3186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bruns, M.E., Kleeman, E., and Bruns, D.E., 1986, Vitamin D-dependent Calcium-binding Protein of mouse yolk sac. J. Biol. Chem., 261:7485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Christakos, S., Friedlander, E.J., Frandsen, B.R., and Norman A.W., 1979, Studies on the mode of action of Calciferol. XIII. Development of a radioimmunoassay for vitamin D dependent chick intestinal Calcium-Binding Protein and tissue distribution. Endocrinology. 104:1495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Christakos, S., and Norman, A.W., 1980, Vitamin D-dependent Calcium-binding Protein synthesis by chick kidney and duodenal polysomes, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 203:809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clemens, T.L., McGlade, S.A., Garret, K.P., Horiuchi, N., and Hendy, G.N., 1988, Tissue specific regulation of avian vitamin D dependent Calcium-binding Protein 28kDa mRNA by 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3, J. Biol. Chem., 263:13112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Craviso, G.L., Garrett, K.P., and Clemens, T.L., 1987, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces the synthesis of vitamin D dependent Calcium-binding Protein in cultured chick kidney cells, Endocrinology, 120:894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Feigner, P.L., Gadek, T.R., Holm, M., Roman, R., Chan, H.W., Wenz, M., Northrop, J.P., Ringold, G.M., and Danielsen, M., 1987, Lipofection: a highly efficient, lipid mediated DNA transfection proce dure, Ptoc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 84:7413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferrari, S., Battini, R., Leone, A., Ferrari, S., Torelli, G., and Barbiroli, B., 1984, Isolation of a cDNA clone containing a sequence complementary to the intestinal Calcium-binding Protein of the chick, Gene. 30:233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferrari, S., Drusiani, E., Battini, R., and Fregni, M., 1988a, Nucleotide sequence of the promoter region of the gene encoding chicken Calbindin D28K. Nucl. Acids Res., 16:353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferrari, S., Battini, R., Drusiani, E., and Fregni, M., 1988b, Functional analysis of the promoter region of the gene encoding chicken calbindin D28K, in: “Vitamin D. Molecular, Cellular and Clinical Endocrinology,” A.W. Norman, K. Schaefer, H.G. Grigoleit, and D. v. Herrath eds., Walter de Gruyter and Co., Berlin New York.Google Scholar
  11. Fraser, J., Otawara, Y., and Price, D.A., 1988, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates the synthesis of matrix gammacarboxyglutamic acid protein by osteosarcoma cells, J. Biol. Chem., 263:911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Glass, C.K., Franco, R., Weinberger, C., Albert, V., Evans, R.M., and Rosenfeld, M.G., 1987, A erbA bind ing site in the rat growth hormone gene mediates transactivation by thyroid hormone, Nature. 329:738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gorman, C.M., Moffat, L.F., and Howard, B.H., 1982, Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian cells. Mol. Cell. Biol., 2:1044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hunziker, W., 1986, The 28kDa vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein has a six domain structure, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 83:7578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jande, S. S., Maler, L., and Lawson, D. E. M., 1981, Immunohistochemical mapping of vitamin D dependent calcium binding protein in brain. Nature. 294:765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kallfelz, F.A., Taylor, A.N., and Wasserman, R.H., 1967, Vitamin D3 induced calcium binding factor in rat intestinal mucosa. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 125:54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kream, B.E., Rowe, D., Smith, M.D., Maher, V., and Majeska, R.J., 1986, Hormonal regulation of collagen synthesis in a clonal rat osteosarcoma cell line. Endocrinology. 119:1922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mangelsdorf,D. J., Komm, B.S., McDonnell, D.P., Pike, J. W., and Haussler, M. R., 1987, Immunoselection of cdnas to avian intestinal calcium binding protein 28K and a novel calmodulin-like protein: assessment of mRNA regulation by the vitamin D hormone. Biochemistry, 26:8332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Norman, A.W., Roth, J., and Orci, L., 1982, The vitamin D endocrine system: steroid metabolism, hormone receptors, and biological response. Endocrine Rev., 3:331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Okazaki, T., Igarashi, T, and Kronenberg, H.M., 1988, 5’-flanking region of the parathyroid hormone gene mediates negative regulation by 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3, J. Biol. Chem., 263:2203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Pansini, A.R., and Christakos, S., 1984, Vitamin D dependent calcium-binding protein in rat kidney, J. Biol. Chem.. 259:9735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Pike, J.W., Sleator, N.M., and Haussler, M.R., 1987, Chicken intestinal receptor for 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. J. Biol. Chem., 262:1305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Price, P.A., and Baukol, S.A., 1980, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 increases synthesis of the vitamin K dependent bone protein by osteosarcoma. J. Biol. Chem.. 255:11660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Simpson, R.U., Hsu, T., Beagley, D.A., Mitchell, B.S. and Alizadeh, B.N., 1987, Transcriptional regulation of the c-myc protooncogene by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in HL60 promyelocytic leukemia cells, J. Biol. Chem., 262:4104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Wasserman, R.H., and Taylor, A.N., 1966, Vitamin D3 induced calcium-binding protein in chick intestinal mucosa. Science. 152:791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Ferrari
    • 1
  • Renata Battini
    • 1
  • Wesley J. Pike
    • 2
  1. 1.Istituto di Chimica BiologicaUniversita di ModenaModenaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology and Metabolism SectionBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations