Advertisement

Morphogenesis and Cytodifferentiation of Male Sex Accessory Epithelia: Involvement of the Mesenchyme and Neurotransmitters

  • Stephen J. Higgins
  • Gerald R. Cunha
  • Peter Young
  • Annemarie A. Donjacour
  • E. Margaret Kinghorn
Part of the Reproductive Biology book series (RBIO)

Abstract

Androgenic steroid hormones characteristically regulate the expression of specific genes within their target organs (Higgins and Parker, 1980; Cunha et al., 1987). Since the advent of recombinant DNA technology, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of how androgens and other steroid hormones selectively activate gene expression (Evans, 1988; Green and Chambon, 1988). With the recent cloning of the androgen receptor (AR) gene (Lubahn et al., 1988; Chang et al., 1988 a,b; Trapman et al., 1988), further dramatic advances can be expected. Little attention, however, has been given to the possible roles of paracrine and autocrine mechanisms in androgen action. This chapter describes some of our studies concerning such mechanisms in the functional cytodifferention of male sex accessory organs and in the maintenance of the differentiated state.

Keywords

Androgen Receptor Seminal Vesicle Androgen Action Wolffian Duct Epididymal Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Attardi B. and Ohno S. 1974. Cytosol androgen receptor from kidney of normal and testicular ferminized (Tfm) mice. Cell 2:205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernfield M.R., Banerjeem S.D., Koda, J.E. and Raprager A.C. 1984. Remodelling of the basement membrane as a mechanism of morphogenetic tissue interaction. In: “Role of Extracellular Matrix in Development”, (R.L. Trestad, ed.), Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, p. 545.Google Scholar
  3. Brandes D. 1974. Fine structure and cytochemistry of male accessory organs. In: “Male Accessory Sex Organs: Structure and Function”. (D. Brandes, ed.), Academic Press, New York, p. 18.Google Scholar
  4. Brooks D.E. and Higgins S.J. 1980. Characterisation and androgen-dependence of proteins associated with luminal fluid and spermatozoa in the rat epididymis. J. Reprod. Fertil. 59:363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooks D.E. and Tiver K. 1983. Localisation of epididymal secretory proteins on rat spermatozoa. J. Reprod. Fertil. 69:651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brooks D.E., Means A.R., Wright E.S., Singh S.P. and Tiver K.K. 1986. Molecular cloning of cDNA for androgen-dependent sperm-coating glycoproteins secreted by rat epididymis. Eur. J. Biochem. 161:13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang C., Kokontis J. and Liao S. 1988a. Molecular cloning of human and rat complementary DNA encoding androgen receptors. Science 240:324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chang C., Kokontis J. and Liao S. 1986b. Structural analysis of complementary DNA and amino acid sequences of human and rat androgen receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:7211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Collins S., Quarmby V.E., French F.S., Lefkowitz R.J. and Caron M.G. 1988. Regulation of the β-2-adrenergic receptor and its mRNA in the rat ventral prostate by testosterone. FEBS Lett. 233:173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cooke P.S. 1988. Ontogeny of androgen receptors in male mouse reproductive organs. Endocrinology 122:92.Google Scholar
  11. Cunha G.R. and Chung L.W.K. 1981. Stromal-epithelial interactions. I. Induction of prostatic phenotype in urothelium of testicular feminized (Tfm/Y) mice. J. Steroid Biochem. 14:1317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cunha G.R. and Lung B. 1978. The possible influence of temporal factors in androgenic responsiveness of urogenital tissue recombinants from wild-type and androgen-insensitive (Tfm) mice. J. Exp. Zool. 205:181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cunha G.R. and Vanderslice K.D. 1984. Identification in histological sections of species origin of cells from mouse, rat and human. Stain Technology 59:7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cunha G.R., Chung L.W.K., Shannon J.M., Taguchi O. and Fuji H. 1983. Hormone-induced morphogenesis and growth: role of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 39:559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cunha G.R., Bigsby R.M., Cooke P.S. and Sugimura Y. 1985. Stromal-epithelial interactions in adult organs. Cell Differentiation 17:137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cunha G.R., Donjacour A.A., Cooke P.S., Mee S., Bigsby R.M., Higgins S.J. and Sugimura Y. 1987. Endocrinology and developmental biology of the prostate. Endocrine Rev. 8:338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dahl E., Kjaerheim A. and Tveter K.J. 1973. The ultrastructure of the accessory sex organs of the male rat. I. Normal structure. Z. Zeilforsch. 137:345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Donjacour A.A. and Cunha G.R. 1989. Seminal vesicle mesenchyme induces prostatic morphology and secretion in urinary bladder epithelium. J. Cell Biol. In press.Google Scholar
  19. Evans R.M. 1988. The steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. Science 240:889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fawell S.E. and Higgins S.J. 1984. Androgen regulation of specific mRNAs, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi system. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 37:15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fawell S.E. and Higgins S.J. 1986. Tissue distribution, developmental profile and hormonal regulation of androgen-responsive secretory proteins of rat seminal vesicle studied by immunocytochemistry. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 48:39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fawell S.E. and Higgins S.J. 1987. Formation of rat copulatory plug: purified seminal vesicle secretory proteins serve as transglutaminase substrates. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 53:149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fawell S.E., Pappin D.J.C., McDonald C.J. and Higgins S.J. 1986. Androgen-regulated proteins of rat seminal vesicle secretion constitute a structurally-related family present in the copulatory plug. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 45:205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fawell S.E., McDonald C.J. and Higgins S.J. 1987. Comparison of seminal vesicle secretory proteins of rodents using antibody and nucleotide probes. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 50:107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gehring U., Tomkins G.M. and Ohno S. 1971. Effect on the androgen-insensitivity mutation on a cytoplasmic receptor for dihydrotesterone. Nature New Biol. 232:106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Green S. and Chambon P. 1988. Nuclear receptors enhance our understanding of transcription regulation. Trends in Genetics 4:309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grobstein C. 1967. Mechanisms of organogenic tissue interaction. Nat. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 26:279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Grunz H. and Tacke L. 1986. The inducing capacity of the presumptive endoderm of Xenopus laevis studied by transfilter experiments. Wilhelm Roux’ Arch. Devel. Biol. 195:467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Haffen K., Kedinger M. and Simon-Assmann P. 1987. Mesenchyme-dependent differentiation of epithelial progenitor cells in the gut. J. Ped. Gast. Nutrit. 6:14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ham J., Thompson A., Needham M., Webb P. and Parker M. 1988. Characterisation of response elements for androgens, glucocorticoids and progestins in mouse mammary tumour virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 16:5263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hatzopoulos A.K., Schlokat U. and Gross P. 1988. Enhancers and other cis-acting regulatory sequences. In: “Transcription and Splicing”. (B.D. Hames and D.M. Glover, eds.), IRL Press, Oxford, p. 43.Google Scholar
  32. Heyns W. and DeMoor P. 1977. Prostatic binding protein. A steroid-binding protein secreted by rat prostate. Eur. J. Biochem. 78:221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Higgins S.J. and Burchell J.M. 1978. Effects of testosterone on messenger RNA and protein synthesis in rat seminal vesicle. Biochem. J. 174:543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Higgins S.J. and Gehring U. 1978. Molecular mechanisms of steroid hormone action. Adv. Cancer Res. 28:313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Higgins S.J., Burchell J.M. and Mainwaring W.I.P. 1976. Androgen-dependent synthesis of basic secretory proteins by rat seminal vesicle. Biochem. J. 158:271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Higgins S.J., Young P., Brody J.R. and Cunha G.R. 1989a. Induction of functional cytodifferentiation in the epithelium of tissue recombinants. I. Homotypic seminal vesicle recombinants. Development. In Press.Google Scholar
  37. Higgins S.J., Young P. and Cunha G.R. 1989b. Induction of functional cytodifferentiation in epithelium of tissue recombinants. II. Instructive induction of Wolffian duct epithelia by neonatal seminal vesicle mesenchyme. Development. In press.Google Scholar
  38. Kandala J.S., Kistler M.K., Lawther R.P. and Kistler W.S. 1983. Characterisation of a genomic clone for rat seminal vesicle secretory protein IV. Nucleic Acids Res. 11:3169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Karkinen-Jaaskelainen M. 1978. Transfilter lens induction in avian embryo. Differentiation 12:31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kedinger M., Haffen K. and Simon-Assman P. 1986. Control mechanisms in the ontogenesis of villus cells. In: “Molecular and Cellular Basis of Digestion”, (P. Desnuelle, H. Sjostrom, and O. Noren, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 323.Google Scholar
  41. Kimelman D. and Kirschner M. 1987. Synergistic induction of mesoderm by FGF and TGF-β and the identification of an mRNA coding for FGF in the early Xenopus embryo. Cell 51:869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kinghorn E.M., Bate A.S. and Higgins S.J. 1987. Growth of rat seminal vesicle epithelial cells in culture: neurotransmitters are required for androgen-regulated synthesis of tissue-specific secretory proteins. Endocrinology 121:1678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kratochwil K. 1987. Tissue combination and organ culture studies in the development of the embryonic mammary gland. In: “Developmental Biology: A Comprehensive Synthesis (R.B.L. Gwatkin, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, p. 315.Google Scholar
  44. Lea O.A., Petrusz P. and French F.S. 1979. Prostatein. A major secretory protein of the rat ventral prostate. J. Biol. Chem. 254:6196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Lehtonen E., Wartiovaara J., Nordling S. and Saxen L. 1975. Demonstration of cytoplasmic processes in Millipore filters permitting kidney tubule induction. J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. 33:187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Lubahn D.B., Joseph D.R., Sullivan P.M., Willard H.F., French F.S. and Wilson E.M. 1988. Cloning of human androgen receptor complementary DNA and localisation to the X chromosome. Science 240:327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McDonald C., Williams L., McTurk P., Mcintosh E. and Higgins S. 1983. Isolation and characterisation of genes for androgen-responsive secretory proteins of rat seminal vesicles. Nucleic Acids Res. 11:917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maddy S.Q. and Habib F.K. 1988. EGF receptors: a depleted expression in cancer of the prostate. J. Endocrinol. 117:243.Google Scholar
  49. Mansson P.E., Sugino A. and Harris S.E. 1981. Use of a cloned double-stranded cDNA coding for a major androgen dependent protein in rat seminal vesicle secretion: the effect of testosterone in gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 9:935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meier S. and Hay E.D. 1975. Stimulation of corneal differentiation by interaction between cell surface and extracellular matrix. J. Cell Biol. 66:275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ostrowski M.C., Kistler M.K. and Kistler W.S. 1979. Purification and cell-free synthesis of a major protein from rat seminal vesicle secretion. J. Biol. Chem. 254:383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ostrowski M.C., Kistler M.K. and Kistler W.S. 1982. Effect of castration on synthesis of seminal vesicle secretory protein IV in the rat. Biochemistry 21:3525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Parker M.G., Scrace G.T. and Mainwaring W.I.P. 1978. Testosterone regulates the synthesis of major proteins in rat ventral prostate. Biochem. J. 170:115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Perris R., von Boxberg Y. and Lofberg J. 1988. Local embryonic matrices determine region-specific phenotypes in neural crest cells. Science 241:86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Price D. and Williams-Ashman H.G. 1961. The accessory reproductive glands of mammals. In: “Sex and Internal Secretion”, (W.C. Young, ed.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 366.Google Scholar
  56. Ross F., Roberts A.B., Danielpour D., Dart L.L., Sporn M.B. and David. I.B. 1988. Mesoderm induction in amphibians: The role of TGF-β-2-like factors. Science 239:783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rousseau G.G. 1984. Control of gene expression by glucocorticoid hormones. Biochem. J. 224:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Sakakura T. 1987. Mammary embryogenesis. In: “The Mammary Gland: Development Regulation and Function”, (M.C. Neville and C.W. Daniel, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, p. 37.Google Scholar
  59. Schuurmans A.L.G., Bolt J. and Mulder E. 1988. Androgens and transforming growth in factor β modulate the growth response to epidermal growth factor in human prostatic tumour cells (LNCaP). Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 60:101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Setchell B.P. and Brooks D.E. 1988. Anatomy, vasculature, innervation and fluids of the male reproductive tract. In: “The Physiology of reproduction”, (E. Knobil and J. Neill, eds.), Raven Press, New York, p. 753.Google Scholar
  61. Shannon J.M. and Cunha G.R. 1984. Characterisation of androgen binding and DNA synthesis in prostate-like structures induced in the urothelium of testicular feminized (Tfm/Y) mice. Biol. Reprod. 31:175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Slack J.M.W., Darlington B.G., Heath J.K. and Godsave S.F. 1987. Mesoderm induction in early Xenopus embryos by heparin-binding growth factors. Nature (London) 326:197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Smith J.C. 1987. A mesoderm-inducing factor is produced by a Xenopus cell line. Development 99:3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Story M.T. 1989. Prostate growth factor: characterisation and its role in normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In: “Paracrine and Autocrine Interactions in Reproductive Endocrinology”, (L.C. Krey, B.J. Gulyan, and J.M. McCracken, eds.), Plenum Press, New York. p.Google Scholar
  65. Szirmai J.A. and van der Linde P.C. 1965. Effect of castration on the endoplasmic reticulum of the seminal vesicle and other target epithelia in the rat. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 12:380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Thompson T.C., Zhau H. and Chung L.W.K. 1987. Catecholamines are involved in the growth and expression of prostatic binding protein by rat ventral prostatic tissues. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 239:239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Toivonen S., Tarin D. and Saxen L. 1976. The transmission of morphogenic signals from amphibian mesoderm to ectoderm in primary induction. Differentiation 5:49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Trapman J., Klaassen P., Kuiper G.G.J.M., van der Korput J.A.G.M., Faber P.W., van Rooij H.C.J., Geurts van Kessel A., Voohorst M.M., Mulder E. and Brinkmann A.O. 1988. Cloning, structure and expression of a cDNA encoding the human androgen receptor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 153:241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Williams L., McDonald C., Jackson S., Mcintosh E. and Higgins S. 1983. Isolation and characterisation of genomic and cDNA clones for an androgen-regulated secretory protein of rat seminal vesicle. Nucleic Acids Res. 11:5921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Williams-Ashman H.G. 1983. Regulatory features of seminal vesicle development and function. Current Topics in Cell Regulation 22:201.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen J. Higgins
    • 1
  • Gerald R. Cunha
    • 2
  • Peter Young
    • 3
  • Annemarie A. Donjacour
    • 3
  • E. Margaret Kinghorn
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.Center for Reproductive EndocrinologyUniversity of California Medical CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Department of AnatomyUniversity of California Medical CenterSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations