The Roles of Transforming Growth Factors α and β in Growth Regulation of Normal and Transformed Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

  • Eva M. Valverius
  • Marc E. Lippman
  • Robert B. Dickson
Part of the Reproductive Biology book series (RBIO)


Abnormal expression of specific growth factors or their receptors may be involved in the initiation and development of a variety of malignancies (Heldin and Westermark, 1984; Goustin et al., 1986). Normal or nontransformed cells in culture generally exhibit a high degree of dependence upon exogenously supplied growth factors for proliferation, whereas transformed cells demonstrate a partial or complete relaxation in their growth factor requirements. This independence from exogenous growth factors may result from an increased level of expression of the same growth factors and/or receptor “down regulation” in cells which have become malignantly transformed (Sporn and Roberts, 1985). It has been postulated that by an autocrine feed-back loop, the secreted growth factors could act on the cells’ own receptors and thus contribute to an abnormal growth pattern.


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Epidermal Growth Factor Transform Growth Factor Mammary Epithelial Cell Human Breast Cancer Cell Line 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eva M. Valverius
    • 1
  • Marc E. Lippman
    • 1
  • Robert B. Dickson
    • 1
  1. 1.Vincent Lombardi Cancer CenterGeorgetown University HospitalUSA

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