Advertisement

Cognitive Education: A Longitudinal Examination

  • R. F. Mulcahy
  • D. Peat
  • G. Mancini
  • J. Andrews
  • K. Marfo

Abstract

There is an urgent need at present for educators to focus their endeavors on the development of higher-level cognitive skills which enable students to become independent learners and creative problem solvers. Because of our rapidly changing technological environment, these skills are even more important today than they have ever been before. It is increasingly recognized that students need to know how to learn new information and skills (i.e., learning/thinking strategies) they will require throughout their lives and not just what to learn.

Keywords

Reading Comprehension Social Competence Thinking Skill Learn Disable Inservice Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alley, G., & Deshler, D. D. (1979). Teaching the learning disabled adolescent: Strategies and methods. Denver, CO: Love Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, J. (1984). An exploration of study strategies used by spelling disabled children: A qualitative comparison of three teaching approaches. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.Google Scholar
  3. Bransford, J., Arbitman-Smith, R., Stein, B. S., & Vye, N. J. (1985). Improving thinking and learning skills: An analysis of three approaches. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills, Vol. 1: Relating instruction to basic research (pp. 133–206 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  4. Bransford, J., Sherwood, R., Vye, N., & Reiser, J. (1986). Teaching thinking and problem solving. American Psychologist, 41, 1078–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Canadian Test Centre. (1981). Canadian Achievement Test. Toronto: Canadian Test Centre, McGraw-Hill Ryerson.Google Scholar
  6. Chance, P. (1986). Thinking in the classroom: A survey of programs. New York: Columbia University Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  7. Collins, A. (1977). Processes in acquiring knowledge. In R. C. Anderson, R. J. Spiro, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge (pp. 339–363 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  8. Coopersmith, S. (1984). Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  9. Crandall, V. C., Katkowsky, W., & Crandall, V. J. (1965). Children’s beliefs in their own control of reinforcements in intellectual achievement situations. Child Development, 36, 91–109.Google Scholar
  10. Dansereau, D. F. (1985). Learning strategy research. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills, Vol. 1: Relating instruction to research (pp. 209–239 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. de Bono, E. (1980). Teaching thinking. New York: Pengu in Books.Google Scholar
  12. Derry, S. J., & Murphy, D. A. (1986). Learning systems that train learning ability: From theory to practice. Review of Educational Research, 56, 1–39.Google Scholar
  13. Deshler, D. D., & Schumaker, J. B. (1986). Learning strategies: An instructional alternative for low-achieving adolescents. Exceptional Children, 52, 583–590.Google Scholar
  14. Deshler, D. D., Warner, M. M., Schumaker, J. B., & Alley, G. R. (1983). Learning strategies intervention model: Key components and current status. In J. D. McKinney, & L. Feagans (Eds.), Current topics in learning disabilities: Vol. 1 (pp. 245–283 ). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  15. Ellis, E. S., Lenz, B. K., & Clark, F. L. (1987). An analysis of the critical features of effective learning strategies. Lawrence, KS: Excell Enterprises.Google Scholar
  16. Feuerstein, R. (1979). The dynamic assessment of retarded performers: The learning potential assessment device, theory, instrument and techniques. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  17. Feuerstein, R., Miller, R. Hoffman, M. B., Rand, Y., Mintzer, Y., & Jensen, M. R. (1981). Cognitive modifiability in adolescence: Cognitive structure and the effects of intervention. The Journal of Special Education, 15, 269–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., Hoffman, M., Hoffman, M., & Miller, R. (1979). Cognitive modifiability in retarded adolescents: Effects of instrumental enrichment. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 83, 539–550.Google Scholar
  19. Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., Hoffman, M. B., & Miller, R. (1980). Instrumental Enrichment: An intervention program for cognitive modifiability. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  20. Ford, M. E. (1982). Social cognition and social competence in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 18, 323–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ford, M. E., & Tisak, M. S. (1983). A further search for social intelligence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 196–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. French, F. (1983). Learner strategies enabling thinking (L-SET): A guide. (A copyrighted manuscript from Author)Google Scholar
  23. Glaser, R. (1984). Education and thinking: The role of knowledge. American Psychologist, 39, 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harter, S. (1981). A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components. Developmental Psychology, 17, 300–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lipman, M., Sharp, A., & Oscanyan, F. (1980). Philosophy in the classroom ( 2nd ed. ). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Lupart, J., & Mulcahy, R. ( 1983, June). Text driven vs. conceptually driven processing in good and poor readers: A developmental perspective. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, Winnipeg, Canada.Google Scholar
  27. Marfo, K., & Mulcahy, R. F. ( 1986, June). The effects of cognitive education: A preliminary analysis. Paper presented at the 14th Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE), Winnipeg, Canada.Google Scholar
  28. Marlowe, H. R. (1986). Social intelligence: Evidence for multidimensionality and construct independence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 52–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meichenbaum, D. (1980). Cognitive behavior modification with exceptional children: A promise yet unfulfilled. Exceptional Education Quarterly, 1, 83–88.Google Scholar
  30. Mueller, H. H., Mulcahy, R. F., Wilgosh, L., Watters, B., & Mancini, G. J. (1986). An analysis of WISC-R item responses with Canadian Inuit children. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 32, 12–36.Google Scholar
  31. Mulcahy, R. F. (1980). Memory: Some selective aspects. In R. F. Jarman (Ed.), Issues in developmental disabilities (pp. 71–96). University Microfilms International.Google Scholar
  32. Mulcahy, R. F. ( 1987, June). Interim findings from a longitudinal study of two learning/thinking programs (SPELT/IE). Symposium held at the 48th Annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, Vancouver, B.C.Google Scholar
  33. Mulcahy, R. F., Marfo, K., & Peat, D. (1984). A Strategies Program for Effective Learning and Thinking: A teacher’s manual (Research edition). Edmonton: University of Alberta Cognitive Education Project.Google Scholar
  34. Mulcahy, R. F., Marfo, K., Peat, D., & Andrews, J. (1987). A Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking: A teacher’s manual (Inservice edition). Edmonton: University of Alberta Cognitive Education Project.Google Scholar
  35. Mulcahy, R. F., Marfo, K., Peat, D., Andrews, J., & Clifford, L. (1986). Applying cognitive psychology in the classroom: A learning/thinking strategies instructional program. Alberta Psychology, 13, 9–12.Google Scholar
  36. Mulcahy, R. F., Peat, D., Marfo, K., Clifford, L., & Henderson, H. (1986). A longitudinal examination of cognitive education: A progress report. Edmonton: Alberta Education, Government of Alberta.Google Scholar
  37. Mulcahy, R. F., & Watters, B. (1982). Phase I: NWT Norming Project Final Report. Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, NWT, Canada.Google Scholar
  38. Nickerson, R. S., & Adams, M. J. (1983). Introduction. In Project Intelligence: The development of procedures to enhance thinking skills, teacher’s manual. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University & Bolt Beranek & Newman, Inc.Google Scholar
  39. Nickerson, R. S., Armbruster, B., Begab, M., Cox, B., Feuerstein, R., Gothold, S., Greenhalgh, C., Millard, W., Paris, S., Pearson, P., Rosotto, G., Smith, R. G., Ward, J., & Wittrock, M. (1985, winter). Report from the excellence in schools task force on learning strategies and thinking skills. Outcome (4), 2.Google Scholar
  40. Nickerson, R. S., Perkins, D. N., & Smith, E. E. (1985). Teaching thinking. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  41. Paris, S. G., Cross, P. R., & Lipson, M. Y. (1984). Informed strategies for learning: A program to improve children’s reading awareness and comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 1239–1252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Paris, S. G., & Lindauer, B. K. (1982). The development of cognitive skills during childhood. In B. B. Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of develop-mental psychology (pp. 333–349 ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  43. Paris, S. G., & Oka, E. R. (1986). Children’s reading strategies, metacognition, and motivation. Developmental Review, 6, 25–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pellegrini, D. S. (1985). Social cognition and competence in middle childhood. Child Development, 56, 253–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Renzulli, J. S., & Hartman, R. K. (1971). Scale for rating behavioral characteristics of superior students. Exceptional Children, 38, 243–248.Google Scholar
  46. Rigney, J. W. (1978). Learning strategies: A theoretical perspective. In H. F. O’Neill, Jr. (Ed.), Learning strategies (pp. 165–205 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  47. Save11, J. M., Twohig, P. T., & Rachford, D. L. (1986). Empirical status of Feuerstein’s “Instrumental Enrichment” (FIE) technique as a method of teaching thinking skills. Review of Educational Research, 56, 381–409.Google Scholar
  48. Segal, J. W., Chipman, S. F., & Glaser, R. (Eds.). (1985). Thinking and learning skills, Vol. 1: Relating instruction to research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  49. Shayer, M., & Beasley, F. (1987). Does Instrumental Enrichment work? British Educational Research Journal, 13, 101–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Snow, R. E. (1982). The training of intellectual aptitude. In D. K.Google Scholar
  51. Detterman, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), How and how much can intelligence be increased (pp. 1–37). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corp.Google Scholar
  52. Sternberg, R. J. (1983). Criteria for intellectual skill training. Educational Researcher, 12(2), 6–12, 26.Google Scholar
  53. Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Instrumental and componential approaches to the nature and training of intelligence. In S. Chipman, J. Segal, & N. R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills: Current research and open questions (Vol. 2, pp. 216–243 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  54. Sternberg, R. J. (1986). Intelligence applied: Understanding and increasing your intellectual skills. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  55. Stokes, T. F., & Baer, D. M. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Taylor, W. L. (1980). “Cloze” readability scores as indices of individual differences in comprehension and aptitude. Journal of Applied Psychology, 41, 19–26.Google Scholar
  57. Thorndike, R. L., Hagen, E., Lorge, I., & Wright, E. N. (1971). Canadian Cognitive Ability Test. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  58. Vye, N. J. (1983). Procedures for the dynamic assessment of learning potential: A review. Unpublished manuscript, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.Google Scholar
  59. Wasserman, S. ( 1986, April). Teaching for thinking: The principal’s role. The Canadian School Executive, University of Alberta, pp. 3–10.Google Scholar
  60. Weinstein, C. E., & Underwood, V. L. (1985). Learning strategies: The how of learning. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills, Vol. 1: Relating instruction to research (pp. 241–258 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  61. Wilgosh, L., & Mulcahy, R. F. (1985). Two models for enrichment programs for the gifted in remote and isolated Canadian areas. In Selected Proceedings of the Fifth World Conference on Gifted and Talented Children. Manila, Philippines: Reading Dynamics Inc.Google Scholar
  62. Wilgosh, L., Mulcahy, R., & Watters, B. (1986). Assessing intellectual performance of culturally different, Inuit children with the WISC-R. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 18, 270–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wittrock, M. C. (Ed.). (1986). Handbook of research on teaching ( 3rd ed. ). London: MacMillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. F. Mulcahy
    • 1
  • D. Peat
    • 1
  • G. Mancini
    • 1
  • J. Andrews
    • 2
  • K. Marfo
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyThe University of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  3. 3.Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of EducationMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

Personalised recommendations