Exploitation of Geometric Redundancies as a Source of Phase Information in X-Ray Structure Analysis of Symmetric Protein Assemblies — Including a worked example: the three-dimensional structure of the icosahedral β60 capsid of heavy riboflavin synthase from Bacillus subtilis

  • Rudolf Ladenstein
  • Adelbert Bacher
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 183)


The construction of symmetric structures from asymmetric building blocks represents an important feature of nature and is studied by several disciplines of science from different viewpoints. In the field of molecular biology the symmetries of complex macromolecules are of special interest. They constitute the basis for structural organization and biological function in many cases. Maximum stability in oligomeric macromolecules is usually achieved by arranging the subunits in a symmetrical manner such that all of the subunits can form equivalent contacts.


Asymmetric Unit Substrate Binding Site Icosahedral Symmetry Crystallographic Symmetry Icosahedral Capsid 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rudolf Ladenstein
    • 1
  • Adelbert Bacher
    • 2
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für BiochemieMartinsriedGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Organische Chemie und BiochemieTechnischen Universität MünchenGarchingWest Germany

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