Collective Phenomena in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions: The Experimental Situation

  • Karl-Heinz Kampert
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 205)


The key mechanisms for producing hot dense matter in high-energy heavy-ion collisions were first formulated more than a decade ago in a series of papers by Chapline, Johnson, Teller, and Weiss [Cha73], Scheid, Müller, and Greiner [Sch74], and later also by Sobel, Siemens, Bondorf, and Bethe [Sob75]. At that time only very little had been known about the properties of hadronic matter at finite temperatures and densities other than the nuclear ground state density ρ 0 = 0.16 fm-3. Scheid et al. argued that high density nuclear shock waves should occur in violent head-on collisions of heavy nuclei leading to a preferential collective sidewards emission of the compressed hot matter. Particularly these suggestions set the stage for an investigation of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) by performing heavy-ion collisions at sufficiently high kinetic energies.


Transverse Momentum Nuclear Matter Central Collision Flow Angle Reaction Plane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aic86.
    J. Aichelin and H. Stocker, Phys. Lett. 176B (1986) 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aic87a.
    J. Aichelin and E.A. Remler, Phys. Rev. C35 (1987) 1291.ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Aic87b.
    J. Aichelin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 (1987) 1926.ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Ain87.
    T.L. Ainsworth, Nucl. Phys. A464 (1987) 740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ala87.
    J.P. Alard, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A261 (1987) 379.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ala88.
    J.P. Alard, contributed paper to Saint-Malo Conference, France, (1988) p. 156.Google Scholar
  7. Ams75.
    A.A. Amsden, Phys. Lett. 35 (1975) 905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bad82.
    A. Baden, Nucl. Instr. Meth. 203 (1982) 189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bar85.
    H.W. Barz, Phys. Rev. C31 (1985), 268.ADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  10. Baro85.
    E. Baron, J. Cooperstein, and S. Kahana, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55 (1985) 126.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baro87.
    E. Baron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59 (1987) 736.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bau75.
    H.G. Baumgardt, Z. Phys. A273 (1975) 359.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Bea85.
    D. Beavis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54 (1985) 1652.Google Scholar
  14. Bea86.
    D. Beavis, Phys. Rev. C33 (1986) 1113.Google Scholar
  15. Ber81.
    G. Bertsch and J. Cugnon, Phys. Rev. C24 (1981) 2514.Google Scholar
  16. Ber83.
    G. Bertsch and P.J. Siemens, Phys. Lett. 126B (1983) 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ber84.
    G. Bertsch, H. Kruse, S. Das Gupta, and Phys. Rev. C29 (1984) 673.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ber87.
    G. Bertsch, W.G. Lynch, and M.B. Tsang, Phys. Lett. 189B (1987) 384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ber88.
    G.F. Bertsch and S. DasGupta, Phys. Rep. (1988) 189.Google Scholar
  20. Ber89.
    G.F. Bertsch, Nucl. Phys. A490 (1989) 745.Google Scholar
  21. Bia86.
    H. Bialowska, Phys. Lett. 173B (1986) 349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bod80.
    A.R. Bodmer, C.N. Panos, and A.D. MacKellar, Phys. Rev. C22 (1980) 1025.Google Scholar
  23. Bog83.
    J. Boguta and H. Stocker, Phys. Lett. 120B (1983) 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bon76.
    J.P. Bondorf, Z. Phys. A279 (1976) 385; and Phys. Lett. B65 (1976) 217.Google Scholar
  25. Bon77.
    R. Bond, Phys. Lett. 71B (1977) 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bon85:.
    J.P. Bondorf, Nucl. Phys. A443 (1985) 321, and Phys. Lett. 150B (1985) 57.Google Scholar
  27. Bon88.
    A. Bonasera, L.P. Csernai, and B. Schumann, Nucl. Phys. A476 (1988) 159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bra79.
    S. Brandt and H.D. Dahmen, Z. Phys. CI (1979) 61.Google Scholar
  29. Bra86.
    E. Braun and Z. Fraenkel, Phys. Rev. C34 (1986) 120.ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Bro88.
    G.E. Brown, Proceedings to Saint Malo Conference 1988.Google Scholar
  31. Buc81.
    G. Buchwald, Phys. Rev. C24 (1981) 135.ADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  32. Buc83.
    G. Buchwald, Phys. Rev. C28 (1983) 2349.Google Scholar
  33. Buc84.
    G. Buchwald, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52 (1984) 1594.Google Scholar
  34. Cal79.
    D.J.E. Callaway, L. Wilets, and Y. Yariv, Nucl. Phys. A327 (1979) 250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cha73.
    G.F. Chapline, Phys. Rev. D8 (1973) 4302.Google Scholar
  36. Cse80.
    L.P. Csernai, B. Lukacs, and J. Zimanyi, Nou. Cimento Lett. 27. (1980) 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cse82.
    L.P. Csernai, Phys. Rev. C26 (1982) 149.ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Cse83a.
    L.P. Csernai and B. Lukas, Phys. Lett. 132B (1983) 295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cse83b.
    L.P. Csernai, Phys. Rev. C28 (1983) 2001.Google Scholar
  40. Cse84.
    L.P. Csernai, G. Fai, and J. Randrup, Phys. Lett. 140B (1984) 149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cse86a.
    L.P. Csernai and J.I. Kapusta, Phys. Rep. 131 (1986) 223, and references therein.Google Scholar
  42. Cse86b.
    L.P. Csernai, Phys. Rev. C34 (1986) 1270.Google Scholar
  43. Cug80.
    J. Cugnon, Phys. Rev. C22 (1980) 1885.Google Scholar
  44. Cug81.
    J. Cugnon, T. Mizutani, and J. Vandermeulen, Nucl. Phys. A352 (1981) 505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cug82a.
    J. Cugnon, D. Kinet, and J. Vandermeulen, Nucl. Phys. A379 (1982) 553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cug82b.
    J. Cugnon, Phys. Lett. 109B (1982) 167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cus85.
    R.Y. Cusson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55 (1985) 2786.Google Scholar
  48. Dan79.
    P. Danielewicz, Nucl. Phys. A314 (1979) 465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dan83.
    P. Danielewicz and M. Gyulassy, Phys. Lett. 129B (1983) 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dan85.
    P. Danielewicz and G. Odyniec, Phys. Lett. 157B (1985) 146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dan88.
    P. Danielewicz, Phys. Rev. C38 (1988) 120.ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Dos85.
    K.G.R. Doss, Phys. Rev. C32 (1985) 116.ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Dos86.
    K.G.R. Doss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 (1986) 302.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dos87.
    K.G.R. Doss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59 (1987) 2720.Google Scholar
  55. Dos88.
    K.G.R. Doss, Phys. Rev. C37 (1988) 163.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fai82.
    G. Fai and J. Randrup, Nucl. Phys. A381 (1982) 557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fai83.
    G. Fai and J. Randrup, Nucl. Phys. A404 (1983) 551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fin82.
    J.E. Finn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49 (1982) 1321.Google Scholar
  59. Gle88.
    N.K. Glendenning, Preprint, LBL-25375 (1988).Google Scholar
  60. Gos77.
    J. Gosset, Phys. Rev. C16 (1977) 629.ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Gos78.
    J. Gosset, J.I. Kapusta, and G.D. Westfall, Phys. Rev. C18 (1978) 844.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gos87.
    J. Gosset, Saclay preprint, DPh-N/Sacaly 2469B (1987).Google Scholar
  63. Gud85.
    K.K. Gudima, Phys. Rev. C32 (1985) 1605.Google Scholar
  64. Gus84a.
    H.A. Gustafsson, Phys. Lett. 142B (1984) 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gus84b.
    H.A. Gustafsson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52 (1984) 1590.Google Scholar
  66. Gus88.
    H.A. Gustafsson, Mod. Phys. Lett. A3 (1988) 1323.Google Scholar
  67. Gut76.
    H.H. Gutbrod, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37 (1976) 667.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gut83.
    H.H. Gutbrod, Phys. Lett. 127B (1983) 317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gut89.
    H.H. Gutbrod, Phys. Lett. 216B (1989) 267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gyu82.
    M. Gyulassy, K.A. Fraenkel, and H. Stocker, Phys. Lett. 110B (1982) 185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gyu83.
    M. Gyulassy, K. Fraenkel, and E.A. Remler, Nucl. Phys. A402 (1983) 596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hah88.
    D. Hahn and H. Stocker, Nucl. Phys. A476 (1988) 718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Har88.
    Hartnach, to be published, and H. Stocker, private communication.Google Scholar
  74. Hil88.
    W. Hillebrandt, Preprint MPI-Munich, MPA 386, July 1988; R. Monchmeyer and E. Muller, Preprint MPI-Munich, MPA 374, June 1988.Google Scholar
  75. Hof76a.
    J. Hofman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36 (1976) 88.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hof76b.
    J. Hofman, W. Scheid, and W. Greiner, Nuovo. Cimento. 33A (1976) 343.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hot88a.
    D. L’Hôte, private communication and talk at Fifth Gull Lake Nuclear Physics Conference, Gull Lake, MI (1988).Google Scholar
  78. Hot88b.
    D. L’Hôte, Nucl. Phys. A488 (1988) 457cCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hot89.
    D. L’Hôte, proceedings to this winter school.Google Scholar
  80. Jai88.
    P.L. Jain, K. Sengupta, and S. Singh, Phys. Rev. C37 (1988) 637.ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Kam86.
    K.H. Kampert, Doctoral Thesis, University of Miinster, (1986).Google Scholar
  82. Kam89.
    K.H. Kampert, submitted to J. Phys. G (1989).Google Scholar
  83. Kap81.
    J.I. Kapusta, Phys. Rev. C24 (1981) 2545.Google Scholar
  84. Kap84.
    J.I. Kapusta, Phys. Rev. C29 (1984) 1735.Google Scholar
  85. Kea88.
    D. Keane to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kea89.
    D. Keane, proceedings to this winter school.Google Scholar
  87. Kis87.
    S.M. Kiselev, Phys. Lett. 198B (1987) 324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Koc88.
    V. Koch, Phys. Lett. 206B (1988) 395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kru85.
    H. Kruse, Phys. Rev. C31 (1985) 1770; H. Kruse, B.V. Jacak, and H. Stöcker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54 (1985) 289.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mek77.
    A.Z. Mekjian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38 (1977) 640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mek78.
    A.Z. Mekjian, Nucl. Phys. A312 (1978) 491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mey80.
    W.G. Meyer, Phys. Rev. C22 (1980) 179.ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Mol84.
    J.J. Molitoris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 (1984) 899.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mol85.
    J.J. Molitoris and H. Stöcker, Phys. Rev. C32 (1985) 346; J.J. Molitoris, D. Hahn and H. Stöcker, Nucl. Phys. A447 (1985) 13c.Google Scholar
  95. M0I86.
    J.J. Molitoris, Phys. Rev. C33 (1986) 867.ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Mol87.
    J.J. Molitoris, H. Stöcker, and B.L. Winer, Phys. Rev. C36 (1987) 220.ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Mol88a.
    J.J. Molitoris, Phys. Rev. C37 (1988) 1014.Google Scholar
  98. Mol88b.
    J.J. Molitoris, Phys. Rev. C37 (1988) 1020.Google Scholar
  99. Nag80.
    S. Nagamiya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45 (1980) 602.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nag81.
    S. Nagamiya, Phys. Rev. C24 (1981) 971.ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. Ngo89.
    C. Ngo, proceedings to this winter school.Google Scholar
  102. Pei88.
    G. Peilert, Mod. Phys. Lett. A3 (1988) 459; UFTP-Preprint, University of Frankfurt (FRG), 214/1988; G. Peilert, Diploma Thesis, University of Frankfurt, 1988 (unpublished).Google Scholar
  103. Pos71.
    A.M. Poskanzer, G.W. Butler, and E.K. Hyde, Phys. Rev. C3 (1971) 882.Google Scholar
  104. Ran81.
    J. Randrup, and S.E. Koonin, Nucl. Phys. A356 (1981) 223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ren84.
    R.E. Renfordt Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 (1984) 763.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rit86.
    H.G. Ritter, , Nucl. Phys. A 447 (1986) 3c.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ros88.
    A. Rosenhauer, Doctoral Thesis, University of Frankfurt; GSI report GSI-88-09; UFTP Preprint, University of Frankfurt (FRG), 203/1987.Google Scholar
  108. Ruc76.
    V. Ruck, M. Gyulassy, and W. Greiner, Z. Phys. A277 (1976) 391.ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. San80.
    A. Sandoval, , Phys. Rev. C16 (1977) 629.Google Scholar
  110. San83.
    A. Sandoval, Nucl. Phys. A400 (1983) 1365c.Google Scholar
  111. Sat88.
    H. Satz, H.J. Specht, and R. Stock, Z. Phys. C38 (1988), Quark-Matter Proceedings 1987.Google Scholar
  112. Sch74.
    W. Scheid, H. Müller, and W. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32 (1974) 741.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sch87a.
    B. Schürmann and W. Zwermann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59 (1987) 2848.Google Scholar
  114. Sch87b.
    B. Schürmann, W. Zwermann, and R. Malfliet, Phys. Rep. 147 (1987) 1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sch88.
    B. Schürmann, Mod. Phys. Lett. A3 (1988) 1137.Google Scholar
  116. Schm88.
    W. Schmidt, , to be published, and H. Stocker, private communication.Google Scholar
  117. Sie79a.
    P.J. Siemens and J.O. Rasmussen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42 (1979) 880.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sie79b.
    P.J. Siemens and J.I. Kapusta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43 (1979) 1486.Google Scholar
  119. Sob75.
    M.I. Sobel, , Nucl. Phys. A251 (1975) 502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sto80.
    R. Stock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44 (1980) 1243.Google Scholar
  121. Sto82.
    R. Stock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49 (1982) 1236.Google Scholar
  122. Sto86.
    R. Stock, Phys. Rep. 135 (1986) 259.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Stö78.
    H. Stocker, W. Greiner, and W. Scheid, Z. Phys. A286 (1978) 121.ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. Stö79a.
    H. Stocker, J.A. Maruhn, and W. Greiner, Z. Phys. A293 (1979) 173.ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. Stö79b.
    H. Stocker, J.A. Maruhn, and W. Greiner, Phys. Lett. 81B (1979) 303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Stö80.
    H. Stocker, J.A. Maruhn, and W. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44 (1980) 725.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. H. Stocker, A.A. Oglobin, and W. Greiner, Z. Phys. A 303 (1981) 259.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Stö82.
    H. Stocker, Phys. Rev. C25 (1982) 1873.Google Scholar
  129. Stö83.
    H. Stocker, , Nucl. Phys. A400 (1983) 63c.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stö84.
    H. Stocker, J. Phys. G 10 (1984) Llll; Nucl. Phys. A418 (1984) 587c.Google Scholar
  131. Stö86.
    H. Stocker and W. Greiner, Phys. Rep. 137 (1986) 277.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Str83.
    H. Ströbele, Phys. Rev. C27 (1983) 1349.Google Scholar
  133. Str84.
    B.J. Strack and J. Knoll, Z. Phys. A315 (1984) 249.ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. Sub81.
    P.R. Subramanian, , J. Phys. G7 (1981) L241.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. THa85.
    B. ter Haar and R. Malfliet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 (1985) 1237.Google Scholar
  136. THa86.
    B. ter Haar and R. Malfliet, Phys. Lett. 172B (1986) 10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. THa87.
    B. ter Har and R. Malfliet, Phys. Rev. C36 (1987) 1611.Google Scholar
  138. Tro88.
    R. Trockel, , Phys. Rev. C39 (1989) 729.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Tsa86.
    M.B. Tsang, , Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 (1986) 559.ADSCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  140. Val88.
    O. Valette, contributed paper to Saint-Malo Conference, France, (1988) p. 141.Google Scholar
  141. Wes76.
    G.D. Westfall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37 (1976) 1202.Google Scholar
  142. Wil85.
    J.R. Wilson and H.A. Bethe, Astrophys. J. 295 (1985) 14.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wol82.
    K.L. Wolf, Phys. Rev. C26 (1982) 2572.Google Scholar
  144. Yar79.
    Y. Yariv and Z. Fraenkel, Phys. Rev. C20 (1979) 2227.Google Scholar
  145. Yar81.
    Y. Yariv and Z. Fraenkel, Phys. Rev. C24 (1981) 488.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl-Heinz Kampert
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MünsterMünsterWest Germany

Personalised recommendations